ASPEK BIOLOGI DAN PARAMETER POPULASI UDANG JINGA (Metapenaeus affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837) DI PERAIRAN KOTABARU, KALIMANTAN SELATAN

Tirtadanu Tirtadanu, Suprapto Suprapto, Ali Suman

Abstract


Udang jinga (Metapenaeus affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837) merupakan salah satu jenis udang ekonomis penting yang diusahakan di perairan Kotabaru dan saat ini produksinya cenderung mengalami penurunan. Salah satu data dan informasi yang diperlukan dalam mengkaji tingkat pemanfaatan dan dasar pengelolaannya adalah aspek biologi dan parameter populasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji aspek biologi dan parameter populasi udang jinga sebagai bahan kebijakan pengelolaan perikanan udang di perairan Kotabaru, Kalimantan Selatan. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari – November 2016 di perairan Kotabaru. Parameter pertumbuhan diestimasi berdasarkan pergeseran modus struktur ukuran panjang dengan metode ELEFAN I. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rata-rata ukuran udang jinga (M. affinis) betina yang tertangkap adalah 23,6 ± 3,45 mmCL dengan modus ukuran 24 mmCL dan rata-rata ukuran udang jantan adalah 20,7 ± 2,9 mm dengan modus ukuran 18 mmCL. Nisbah kelamin udang jinga jantan dan betina adalah 1 : 2,5. Musim pemijahan udang jinga diduga berlangsung sepanjang tahun dan puncak pada bulan Maret. Ukuran rata-rata pertama kali tertangkap (Lc) udang lebih kecil dari ukuran rata-rata pertama kali matang gonad (Lm) (21,7 < 28,5 mm CL) sehingga sebagian besar udang tertangkap berukuran kecil dan belum memijah. Persamaan pertumbuhan udang jinga jantan  CL(t)=35,95(1-e-2.02(t+0,31) dan udang jinga betina CL(t)= 38,3(1-e-1,92(t+0,29)). Tingkat pemanfaatan udang (E) menunjukkan lebih tangkap (overfishing) yakni 0,70/tahun pada jantan dan 0,73/tahun pada betina. Dengan demikian disarankan untuk melakukan pengurangan upaya penangkapan sebesar 40% dan penutupan musim penangkapan di bulan Maret.

The jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis H. Milne Edwards, 1837) was one of important commodity that was exploited in Kotabaru Waters, yet the production tend to be declined recently. The data and information on biological aspects and population parameters are needed to investigate the exploitation level and the basis of management measures. This research aims to investigate the biological aspects and population parameters of jinga shrimp Kotabaru waters, South of Kalimantan. This research was conducted on January – November 2016. The growth parameters were estimated as movement of length frequency mode by ELEFAN I method. The results showed that the mean size of female jinga shrimp (M. affinis) was 23,6 ± 3,45 mm CL and the mode was 24 mmCL. While, the mean size of male jinga shrimp was 20,7 ± 2.9 mm CL and the mode was 18 mmCL. The sex ratio of male and female shrimp was 1 : 2,5 . Spawning season of jinga shrimp was estimated throughout the year and the peak was in March. The length at first captured (Lc) was shorter than length at first matured (Lm) (21,7 < 28,5 mm CL). That means most of the catches was immature. The growth function of male and female jinga shrimp were and, CL(t)=35,95(1-e-2.02(t+0,31) respectively and CL(t)= 38,3(1-e-1,92(t+0,29)). The exploitation rate (E) of male and female shrimp fishing were  0,70/year 0,73/year, respectively. The reduction of fishing effort needed by 40% of the actual combined with the temporal fishing closure March.


Keywords


Biologi; pengelolaan; Kotabaru; Metapenaeus affinis; parameter populasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.9.1.2017.11-20


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