ASPEK REPRODUKSI IKAN LOUHAN HIBRID SEBAGAI IKAN ASING INVASIF DI DANAU MATANO, SULAWESI SELATAN

Dimas Angga Hedianto, Agus Arifin Sentosa, Hendra Satria

Abstract


Penelitian mengenai aspek reproduksi ikan asing invasif di Danau Matano dibutuhkan dalam upaya pengendalian dan pemberantasan populasinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aspek reproduksi ikan louhan yang diharapkan dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk pengendalian ikan asing invasif di Danau Matano, Sulawesi Selatan. Sampel ikan diperoleh dengan menggunakan jaring insang percobaan dengan berbagai ukuran mata jaring pada Mei dan Oktober 2015 serta pada Februari, Juli, dan September 2016 di 14 stasiun penelitian. Penentuan jenis kelamin dan tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG) berdasarkan ciri reproduksi primernya. Fekunditas total dihitung menggunakan metode gravimetrik. Ikan louhan yang tertangkap sebanyak 1.118 ekor terdiri atas 552 ekor ikan jantan, 512 ekor ikan betina, dan 54 ekor tidak dapat ditentukan jenis kelaminnya. Nisbah kelamin secara temporal berada pada kondisi seimbang dengan perbandingan total sebesar 1,1:1. Ikan louhan jantan dan betina mencapai rata-rata ukuran pertama kali matang gonad (Lm50) masing-masing pada panjang total 12,6 cm dan 10,2 cm. Ikan jantan berukuran lebih besar daripada betina pada TKG yang sama. Diameter telur berkisar antara 0,25-2,35 mm (rerata 1,31±0,37 mm) dengan fekunditas berkisar antara 104-3.375 butir. Ikan louhan termasuk tipe pemijah bertahap dan mampu memijah sepanjang tahun di berbagai tipe karakteristik habitat. Puncak pemijahan terjadi pada musim penghujan dan kemarau. Substrat dasar berupa pasir berbatu di kedalaman 15 meter merupakan daerah utama pemijahan ikan louhan di Danau Matano. Rekomendasi pengendalian ikan louhan di Danau Matano melalui penangkapan perlu dilakukan sebelum mencapai ukuran Lm50, di seluruh daerah litoral danau (<10 meter) pada musim kemarau (April-Juni) dan penghujan (September-November).

The information on fish reproduction aspects of invasive alien species in Matano Lake is required to setup measure for controlling and eradicating their population. This research aims to determine the reproductive aspects of flowerhorn cichlid that could used as a reference for controlling the invasive alien species in the Matano Lake, South Sulawesi. Sample was collected by using experimental gill-net with various mesh sizes in 14 research stations in several periods (May 2015, October 2015, February 2016, July 2016, and September 2016). Sex determination and gonadal stages identified based on the characteristics of primary reproduction. Total fecundity is calculated using gravimetric method. The total individual flowerhorn cichlid was 1,118 fishes that consists of 552 males, 512 females, and 54 unidentified. The temporary sex ratio indicated balance conditions by ratio 1.1:1. Length at first maturity (Lm50) of male and female of flowerhorn cichlid reached at 12.6 cmTL and 10.2 cmTL, respectively. Males are larger than females at the same gonad maturity stage. The eggs diameter ranged from 0.25 to 2.35 mm (average of 1.31 ± 0.37 mm) with fecundity ranged from 104-3,375 egg which indicated that flowerhorn cichlid was a partial spawner. Flowerhorn cichlid spawned throughout the year (multi spawning) in various types of habitat characteristics with spawning peaks in the rainy and dry seasons. Sandy rock in the depth of 15 meters is the main of spawning area of flowerhorn cichlid in the Matano Lake. The recommendation for controlling flowerhorn cichlid in Matano Lake by fishing, need to be done before its size reaching the Lm50, across the littoral area of the lake (<10 meters) in the dry (April-June) and rainy seasons (September-November).


Keywords


Reproduksi; invasif; ikan louhan; Danau Matano

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bagenal, T. B., & Braum, E. (1978). Eggs and early life history (pp. 165-201). In Bagenal, T. (ed.). Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Freshwaters. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Bal, D. V., & Rao, K. V. (1984). Marine Fisheries (p. 470). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.

Balai Besar KSDA Sulawesi Selatan. (2011). Review rencana penataan blok taman wisata alam Danau Matano Kabupaten Luwu Timur Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan (p. 62). Laporan Teknis. Makasar: Kementerian Kehutanan dan Lingkungan Hidup.

Barlow, G. W. (2000). The Cichlid Fishes: Nature’s Grand Experiment in Evolution (p. 352). Cambridge: Perseus Books.

BBTMC (Balai Besar Teknologi Modifikasi Cuaca) BPPT. (2016). Monitoring TRMM untuk TMC beberapa DAS. Diakses pada tanggal 14 Oktober 2017 dari http://wxmod.bppt.go.id/index.php/monitoring/monitoring-trmm-tmc-das.

Canonico, G. C., Arthington, A., Mccrary, J. K., & Thieme, M. L. (2005). The effects of introduced tilapias on native biodiversity. Aquatic Conserv.: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 15: 463-483. doi: 10.1002/aqc.699

CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). (2005). Water quality-sampling of fish with multimesh gillnets (p. 27). EN 14575. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization.

Cruz, V. M. O. (2011). Análisis del crecimiento y madurez sexual de Cichlasoma trimaculatum (Günther, 1867) de la subcuenca río Atoyac-Paso de la Reina de la cuenca río Atoyac, Oaxaca (p. 99). Thesis. Instituto Politecnico Nacional.

Dewantoro, G. W., & Rachmatika, I. (2016). Jenis Ikan Introduksi dan Invasif Asing di Indonesia (p. 210). Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Effendie, M. I. (1979). Metode Biologi Perikanan (p. 112). Bogor: Yayasan Dewi Sri.

Effendie, M. I. (1997). Biologi Perikanan (p. 157). Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama. Bogor.

Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (eds). (2014). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (06/2014).

Gassner, H., Achleitner, D., & Luger, M. (2015). Guidance on surveying the biological quality elements part B1-fish (p. 40). Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Environment and Water Management Department. Vienna: Austria.

Genner, M. J., Nichols, P., Carvalho, G. R., Robinson, R. L., Shaw, P. W., & Turner, G. F. (2007). Reproductive isolation among deep-water cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi differing in monochromatic male breeding dress. Molecular Ecology 16, 651-662.

Hedianto, D. A., & Purnamaningtyas, S. E. (2013). Biologi reproduksi ikan golsom (Hemichromis elongatus, Guichenot 1861) di Waduk Cirata, Jawa Barat. BAWAL 5,3, 159-166. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.5.3.2013.159-166

Hedianto, D. A., Purnomo, K., Kartamihardja, E. S., & Warsa, A. (2014). Parameter populasi ikan lohan (Cichlasoma trimaculatum, Günther 1867) di Waduk Sempor, Jawa Tengah. J. Lit. Perikan. Ind., 20,2, 81-88. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jppi.20.2.2014.81-88

Hedianto, D. A., & Satria, H. (2017). Pendekatan pola peremajaan dan laju eksploitasi ikan louhan untuk pengendalian ikan asing invasif di Danau Matano, Sulawesi Selatan. J. Lit. Perikan. Ind., 23,4, 227-239. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jppi.23.4.2017.227-239

Herder, F., Schliewen, U. K., Geiger, M. F., Hadiaty, R. K., Gray, S. M., McKinnon, J. S., Walter, R. P., & Pfaender, J. (2012). Alien invasion in Wallace’s Dreamponds: records of the hybridogenic “flowerhorn” Cichlid in Lake Matano, with an annotated checklist of fish species introduced to the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi. Aquatic Invasions, 7,4, 521–535. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/ai.2012.7.4.009

Hildebrand, S. F. (1925). Fishes of the Republic of El Salvador, Central America. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, 41, 236-287.

Keenleyside, M. H. (eds). (1991). Cichlid Fishes: Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution (p. 378). London: Chapman and Hall.

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Republik Indonesia (KLH). (2011). Profil 15 Danau Prioritas Nasional. Diakses tanggal 12 Oktober 2017 dari https://menyelamatkandanaulimboto.

files.wordpress.com/2011/11/gab-profil-15-danau_edit5_ fix-cetak_.pdf

King, M. (2007). Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management, 2nd Edition (p. 400). UK: Blackwell Publishing. Oxford.

Komolafe, O. O., & Arawomo, G. A. O. (2007). Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Opa Reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Rev. Biol. Trop., 55,2, 595-602.

Kullander, S. O. (2003). Family Cichlidae (cichlids). In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander & C. J. Ferraris Jr. (Eds.), Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America (pp. 605-654). Porto Alegre, Brasil: Edipucrs.

Linhares, J. C. S, Manna, L. R., Mazzoni, R., Carla F. R. C. F., & Silva, J. F. R. (2014). Reproductive tactics optimizing the survival of the offspring of Cichlasoma orientale (Perciformes: Cichlidae). Revista de Biología Tropical 62, 1007-1018.

Lopez, G. R. P., Ibarra, A. M. A., Gutierrez, E., & Martinez, A. C. (2009). Differences in reproductive seasonality of the Central American cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus from three 'cenotes' (sinkholes). J. Appl. Ichthyol., 25, 85-90.

Mahomoud, W. F. A., Amin, A. M. M., Elboray, K. F., Ramadan, A. M., & El-Halfawy, M. M. K. O. (2010). Reproductive biology and some observation on the age, growth, and management of Tilapia zilli (Gerv, 1848) from Lake Timsah, Egypt. Int. J. Fish. Aquac., 3,2, 15-25.

Marquez, J. L. G., Mendoza, B. P., Ugarte, I. H. S., & Arroyo, M. G. (2003). Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Coatetelco lake, Morelos, Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop., 51,1, 221-228.

Mckaye, K. R., Louda, S. M., & Stauffer Jr., J. R. (1990). Bower size and male reproductive success in a cichlid fish lek. The American Naturalist 135,5, 597-613.

McKaye, K. R., Hale, J., & Berghe, E. P. (2010). The reproductive biology of a Central American cichlid Neetroplus nematopus in Lake Xiloá, Nicaragua. Current Zoology, 56,1, 43-51.

McMahan, C. D., Geheber, A. D., & Piller, K. R. (2010). Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 1293–1300. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.09.005

McNeely, J. A., Mooney, H. A., Neville, L. E., Schei, P., & Waage, J. K. (eds.). (2001). A global strategy on invasive alien species (60 p). Switzerland: IUCN Gland, UK: Cambridge.

Mendoza, B. P., Marquez, I. H. G., Ugarte, S., & Noguera, D. R. (2005). Reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Emiliano Zapata dam, Morelos, Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop., 53,3-4, 515-522.

Nasution, S. H., Muschsin, I., & Sulistiono. (2010). Potensi rekrut ikan bonti bonti (Paratherina striata Aurich) di Danau Towuti, Sulawesi Selatan. BAWAL 3,1, 45-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.3.1.2010.45-55

Nasution, S. H., Sulastri, S., & Muchlisin, Z. A. (2015). Habitat characteristics of Lake Towuti, South Sulawesi, Indonesia-the home of endemic fishes. AACL Bioflux 8(2): 213-223. doi: https://doi.org/10.5072/FK2/GHOUG7

Ng, H. H., & Tan, H. H. (2010). An annotated checklist of the non-native freshwater fish species in the reservoirs of Singapore. Cosmos, 6, 95–116. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219

Nico, L. G., Beamish, W. H., & Musikasinthorn, P. (2007). Discovery of the invasive Mayan Cichlid fish “Cichlasoma” urophthalmum (Günther 1862) in Thailand, with comments on other introductions and potential impacts. Aquatic Invasions, 2, 197–214. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3391/ai.2007.2.3.7

Nielsen, L. A., & Johnson, D. L. (1985). Fisheries techniques (p. 468). American Fisheries Society. Maryland: Bethesda.

Nikolsky, G. V. (1963). The Ecology Of Fishes (p. 352).Transl. by L. Birkett. New York: Academic Press.

Prianto, E., Kartamihardja, E. S., Umar, C., & Kasim, K. (2016). Pengelolaan sumberdaya ikan di Komplek Danau Malili, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. J. Kebijak. Perikan. Ind., 8,1, 41-52. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jkpi.

1.2016.41-52

Purnamaningtyas, S. E., & Tjahjo, D. W. H. (2010). Beberapa aspek biologi ikan oskar (Amphilophus citrinellus) di Waduk Ir. H. Djuanda, Jatiluhur, Jawa Barat. BAWAL 3,1, 9-16. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.3.1.

9-16

Rahardjo, M. F., Sjafei, D. S., Affandi, R., Sulistiono., & Hutabarat, J. (2010). Iktiologi (p. 408). Bandung: Lubuk Agung.

Reiss, P., Able, K. W., Nunes, M. S., & Hrbek, T. (2012). Color pattern variation in Cichla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae): resolution based on morphological, molecular, and reproductive data. Neotropical Ichthyology 10,1, 59-70.

Richardson, D. M., Pysek, P., Rejmanek, M., Barbour, M. G., Panetta, F. D., & West, C. J. (2000). Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions, 6, 93-107.

Shallof, K. A. S., & Salama, H. M. N. (2008). Investigations on some aspects of reproductive biology in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) inhabited Abu-zabal Lake, Egypt. Global Veterinaria, 2,6, 351-359.

Steel, R. G. H., & Torrie, J. H. (1989). Prinsip dan Prosedur Statistika: Suatu Pendekatan Biometrik (p. 748). (Diterjemahkan oleh Bambang Sumantri). Edisi kedua. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia.

Setyobudiandi, I., Sulistiono, Yulianda, F., Kusmana, C., Hariyadi, S., Damar, A., Sembiring, A., & Bahtiar. (2009). Sampling dan Analisis Data Perikanan dan Kelautan: Terapan Metode Pengambilan Contoh di Wilayah Pesisir dan Laut (p. 319). Cetakan 1. Bogor: Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Tampubolon, P. A. R. P., Rahardjo, M. F., & Krismono. (2015). Aspek reproduksi ikan oskar (Amphilophus citrinellus Günther, 1864) di Waduk Ir. H. Djuanda, Jawa Barat. BAWAL 7,2, 67-75. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.7.

2015.67-75

Thompson, A. B., Allison, E. H., & Ngatunga, B. P. (1996). Distribution and breeding biology of offshore cichlids in Lake Malawi/Niassa. Environmental Biology of Fishes 41, 235-254.

Wahyuni, S., Sulistiono., & Affandi, R. (2015). Pertumbuhan, laju eksploitasi, dan reproduksi ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) di Waduk Cirata, Jawa Barat. Limnotek, 22,2, 144-155.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.10.2.2018.69-82


Creative Commons License
Bawal Widya Riset Perikanan Tangkap is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
View My Stats
p-ISSN 1907-8226
e-ISSN 2502-6410
Find in a library with WorldCatCrossref logo
SHERPA/RoMEO Logogoogle scholardoaj