PENGARUH ALIH FUNGSI KAWASAN MANGROVE PADA SIFAT SEDIMEN DAN KEMAMPUAN PENYIMPANAN KARBON

Terry Louise Kepel, Restu Nur Afi Ati, Yusmiana Puspitaningsih Rahayu, Novi Susetyo Adi

Abstract


Ekosistem mangrove memiliki kemampuan untuk menyerap dan menyimpan karbon. Beberapa penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa penyimpanan karbon terbesar di ekosistem ini ada di sedimen. Namun demikian, kapasitas penyimpanan ini akan menurun karena deforestrasi dan konversi lahan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisa dampak alih fungsi lahan mangrove terhadap sifat sedimen serta kemampuannya dalam menyimpan karbon dengan membandingkan dua tipe mangrove yang dikategorikan sebagai mangrove alami dan degradasi/terkonversi. Penelitian dilakukan di empat lokasi yaitu di Kabupaten Berau - Kalimantan Timur dan Karimunjawa-Jawa Tengah yang mewakili daerah alami serta, Kabupaten Pati - Jawa Tengah dan  Kabupaten Indramayu - Jawa Barat yang mewakili mangrove yang pernah mengalami alih fungsi lahan dan telah direhabilitasi. Sedimen diambil minimal sampai pada kedalaman satu meter dengan menggunakan soil auger. Sebanyak empat sampel diambil pada setiap core sediment pada interval kedalaman 0-15, 15-30, 30-50 dan 50-100 cm. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa mangrove yang pernah mengalami alih fungsi lahan memiliki nilai prosentasi C (%), densitas C (mg cm-3) dan simpanan karbon (MgCha-1) yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan lokasi yang alami. Kisaran nilai prosentasi karbon, densitas dan simpanan karbon pada daerah rehabilitasi berturut-turut adalah sebesar 1,11 - 2,25 %, 0,01 - 0,02 mg cm-3 dan 94,92-265,26 Mgha-1, sementara untuk wilayah alami pada kisaran 12,54 - 17,14 %, 0,07 - 0,09 mg cm-3 dan 427,54 - 606,92 Mgha-1. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa alih fungsi lahan mangrove menurunkan kemampuan penyimpanan karbon ekosistem.


Keywords


Konversi mangrove, sedimen, simpanan karbon, penyerap karbon, densitas karbon.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jkn.v13i3.6620


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