IMPLEMENTASI PENUTUPAN AREA DAN MUSIM PENANGKAPAN UNTUK PENGELOLAAN PERIKANAN UDANG DI LAUT ARAFURA

Wijopriono, Wijopriono, Ngurah N Wiadnyana, Dharmadi Dharmadi, Ali Suman

Abstract


Kajian penutupan area dan waktu penangkapan udang telah dilakukan, menyusul pemberlakuan moratorium perizinan usaha perikanan tangkap dan pelarangan pengoperasian trawl di Laut Arafura. Kajian ini diperlukan untuk memberikan perspektif pilihan strategi dalam upaya pemulihan stok, dengan pertimbangan manfaat ekonomi dan keberlanjutan sumberdaya udang di Laut Arafura. Dalam status lebih tangkap yang tinggi, lebih banyak diterapkan strategi penutupan musim pada periode pemijahan dan masa perekrutan untuk melindungi induk dan juvenile udang. Dari data biologi, runut kehidupan, dan pola penangkapan udang, diperoleh dua pilihan strategi, yaitu: penutupan sepanjang tahun area penangkapan di sisi barat laut Arafura yang diketahui sebagai habitat pemijahan udang, atau menghentikan seluruh kegiatan pengoperasian pukat udang dan pukat ikan di Laut Arafura pada musim puncak pemijahan, yaitu periode Februari dan Agustus-September. Keputusan pemilihan kedua strategi tersebut memiliki konsekuensi yang berbeda dari sisi biologi, ekonomi dan sosial. Penutupan musim akan efektif jika disertai tindakan lain seperti kontrol tangkapan dan pembatasan jumlah armada/alat tangkap serta kebijakan teknis lainnya seperti kewajiban penggunaan by-catch reduction device (BRD) pada pukat udang dan ikan, penempatan observer diatas kapal, kewajiban penggunaan peralatan vessel monitoring system (VMS) dan sistem pelaporannya.

Assement of seasonal and area closure of fishing has been conducted, following the enactment of moratorium on the capture fisheries business and the prohibition of trawling operations in the Arafura Sea. This work is needed to provide a strategic option perspective in the efforts of rebuilding stock, taking into consideration the economic benefits and sustainability of shrimp resources in the Arafura Sea. In situation ofheavy over-exploited, more seasonal closing strategies are adopted during the spawning period and recruitment periods to protect broodfish and juveniles. Based on biological data including life history and shrimp fishing patterns, two strategic options are obtained, i.e., year-round closing of fishingareas on the western side of Arafura Sea known as shrimp spawning habitat, or stop shrimp and fish trawl fishing activities in all areas of the Arafura Sea duringpeak spawning season, i.e., in February and August-September. Decisions on the selection of these two strategies have different biological, economic and social consequences. Seasonal closure will be effective if accompanied by other measures such as catch control and fleet/fishing gear restrictions and other technical policies such as obligation to install by-catch reduction device (BRD) on shrimp and fish trawls, placement of observer onboard of the vessels, obligation to install the equipment of vessel monitoring system (VMS) and their reporting systems.


Keywords


Penutupan area dan musim; pemijahan; perikanan udang; Laut Arafura

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jkpi.1.1.2019.11-21


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