VARIASI GENETIK MADIDIHANG (Thunnus albacares; Bonnaterre, 1788) DENGAN ANALISIS MIKROSATELIT DI PERAIRAN INDONESIA

Irwan Jatmiko, Fathur Rochman, Maya Agustina

Abstract


Madidihang (Thunnus albacares) merupakan spesies yang bermigrasi jauh yang distribusinya di perairan tropis hingga perairan subtropis. Spesies ini ditemukan di Samudra Atlantik, Hindia dan Pasifik. Informasi genetik ikan dengan migrasi jauh seperti tuna penting diketahui untuk kepentingan pemanfaatan secara lestari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi keragaman genetik dan struktur populasi yang dieksploitasi dan kekerabatan populasi madidihang di perairan Indonesia. Pengumpulan sampel genetik dilakukan di tiga lokasi yaitu di Barat Sumatra, Selatan Bali dan perairan Sulawesi Utara. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis mikrosatelit yang terdiri dari ekstraksi, purifikasi, amplifikasi polymerase chain reaction (PCR) dan elektroforesis. Hasil analisis terhadap 3 loci DNA mikrosatelit menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kekerabatan ketiga kelompok sampel relatif dekat yaitu berkisar antara 0,132-0,206. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Populasi madidihang di perairan Indonesia merupakan stok tunggal dan terjadi perkawinan acak. Meskipun demikian, sebagai spesies yang bermigrasi jauh lintas negara, pengelolaan madidihang juga memerlukan kerjasama yang baik antar negara yang tergabung dalam organisasi pengelolaan perikanan tuna regional.

Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a highly migratory species that distribute from tropical to subtropical waters. This species can be found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Genetic information in fish with long distance migration such as tuna is very important for sustainable use. This study aims to obtain information on genetic diversity and population structure exploited and kinship of yellowfin tuna populations in Indonesian waters. Genetic sampling of yellowfin tuna was conducted in three locations in Indonesian waters in western Sumatra, southern Bali and North Sulawesi waters. The methods used was microsatellite analysis which consist of extraction, purification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and electrophoresis. The result of 3 microsatellite DNA locus analysis showed that the level of kinship between the three sample groups in Indonesian waters was relatively close, ranging from 0.132 to 0.206. This shows that yellowfin tuna population in Indonesian waters is a single stock and random copulation. However, as a highly migratory species that migrate across the nations, yellowfin tuna management also requires good cooperation among countries incorporated in regional tuna fisheries management organizations.


Keywords


Keragaman genetik; struktur populasi; analisis mikrosatelit

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jppi.24.3.2018.157-164


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