PARAMETER POPULASI DAN TINGKAT PEMANFAATAN KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla serrata Forsskal, 1775) DI PERAIRAN SEBATIK, KALIMANTAN UTARA

Tirtadanu Tirtadanu, Umi chodrijah

Abstract


Salah satu informasi yang diperlukan untuk merumuskan pengelolaan kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata Forsskal, 1775) yang berkelanjutan adalah parameter populasi dan tingkat pemanfaatannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji parameter populasi dan tingkat pemanfaatan kepiting bakau di perairan Sebatik. Penelitian dilakukan pada Maret-Desember 2017. Sampel kepiting bakau di peroleh dari hasil tangkapan nelayan dengan alat tangkap bubu di perairan Sebatik. Pertumbuhan dianalisis berdasarkan persamaan Von Bertalanffy dengan mengamati pergeseran struktur ukuran kepiting tiap bulan dan tingkat pemanfaatan diperoleh dari metode kurva konversi panjang dengan hasil tangkapan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kepiting bakau yang tertangkap bubu di perairan Sebatik berukuran lebar karapas (carapace width) antara 84-144 mmCW dengan rata-rata ukuran yang tertangkap adalah 107,05±12,3 mmCW pada kepiting jantan dan 110,2±8,86 mmCW pada kepiting betina. Pertumbuhan berat kepiting bakau jantan lebih cepat dibandingkan ukurannya (b=3,6) sebaliknya pertumbuhan berat kepiting bakau betina lebih lambat dibandingkan ukurannya (b=2,5). Nisbah kelamin kepiting bakau menunjukkan kondisi tidak seimbang (5,5 : 1) dengan proporsi jantan lebih dominan dibandingkan betina. Lebar karapas asimptotik (CW) kepiting bakau jantan adalah 151,2 mmCW dan betina adalah 140,5 mmCW. Laju pertumbuhan (K) kepiting bakau adalah 0,75 tahun-1 pada kepiting jantan dan 0,79 tahun-1 pada kepiting betina. Status pemanfaatan kepiting bakau telah berada dalam tahapan mendekati lebih tangkap (E=0,5-0,55) sehingga disarankan tidak melakukan penambahan upaya penangkapan kepiting bakau di perairan Sebatik. 

One of the information needed for formulating the sustainable management of mud crab is the availability of information on the population parameters and its exploitation rate. The current research aimed to study the population parameters and the exploitation rate of mud crab in Sebatik Waters. Field research was conducted in March – December 2017. Samples of mud crab were obtained from the catch of fisherman by trap in Sebatik Waters. The Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were constructed through monthly modals progression analysis of the size of carapace width frequencies distributions and the exploitation rate was estimated through the method of length converted catch curve. The results showed that the carapace width of mud crabs caught by trap in Sebatik Waters ranged between 84 to 144 mmCW with the mean size of 107.05±12.3 mmCW for male and 110.2±8.86 mmCW for female. The growth of weights of male crab (b=3.6) is faster than its size, while the growth of weight of female crab was slower than its size (b=2,5). The sex ratio of mud crab was unbalanced (5.5 : 1) that the proportion of male was more dominant than female. Asymptotic carapace width (CW) of mud crab was 151.2 mmCW for male and 140.5 mmCW for female. The growth rate (K) of mud crab was 0.75 year-1 for male and 0.79 year-1 for female. The exploitation status of mud crab was starting to overfishing (E=0,5-0,55) so it suggest to not increase the fishing effort of mud crab fishery  in Sebatik Waters.


Keywords


Parameter populasi; perairan Sebatik; Scylla serrata; tingkat pemanfaatan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alberts-Hubatsch, H., Lee, S. Y., Meynecke, J., Diele, K., Nordhaus, I., & Wolff, M. (2016). Life-history, movement, and habitat use of Scylla serrata (Decapoda, Portunidae): current knowledge and future challenges. Hydrobiologia. 763, 5-21.

DJPT. (2016). Statistik Perikanan Tangkap Indonesia menurut Provinsi 2016. Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan Tangkap. Jakarta.

Gayanilo, F. C. J., Sparre, P., & Pauly, D. (2005). FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools II (FISAT II). Revised version. User’s guide. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries) No. 8. Revised Version. Rome: FAO.

Gulland, J. A. (1983). Fish stock assessment (p. 233). A Manual of Basic Method. Chicester: John Wiley and Sons.

Harding, J. M., & Mann, R. (2010). Observations of distribution, size, and sex ratio of mature blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, from a Chesapeake Bay Tributary in relation to oyster habitat and environmental factors. Bulletin of Marine Science. 86(1), 75-91.

Hidayat, T., Yusuf, H. N., Nurulludin., & Pane, R. P. (2017). Parameter populasi kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata) di perairan Pasaman Barat. BAWAL. 9(3), 207-213. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/bawal.9.3.2017.207-213

Hill, B. J. (1994). Offshore spawning by the portunid crab Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Decapoda). Marine Biology. 120, 379-384.

Hosseini, M., Vazirizade, A., Parsa, Y., & Mansori, A. (2012). Sex ratio, size distribution and seasonal abundance of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Persian Gulf Coasts, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal. 17(7), 919-925.

Islam, M. L., & Yahya, K. B. (2017). Variations in age and size at sexual maturity of female green mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) under different captive growout conditions. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 5(4), 451-457.

King, M. (1995). Fishery biology, Assessment and Management (p. 341). United Kingdom: Fishing New Books.

Kumalah, A. A., Wardiatno, Y., Setyobudiandi, I., & Fahrudin, A. (2017). Biologi populasi kepiting bakau Scylla serrata Forsskal, 1775 di ekosistem Mangrove Kabupaten Subang, Jawa Barat. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis. 9(1), 173-184.

Pauly, D. 1983. Some simple methods for the assessment of tropical fish stocks. Rome. FAO Fisheries Tech. 234 pp.

Pauly, D., Ingles, J., & Neal, R. (1984). Application to Shrimp Stock of Objective Methods for The Estimation of Growth, Mortality and Recruitment Related Parameters from Length-Frequency Date (ELEFAN I AND II). Penaeid Shrimps, Their biology and Management. Fishing New Books Ltd. 308 pp.

Sara, L. (2010). Study on the size structure and population parameters of mud crab Scylla serrata in Lawele Bay, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Coastal Development. 13(2), 133-147.

Sara, L., Aguilar, R. O., Ingles, J. A., & Laureta, L. V. (2014). Habitat characteristics and relative abundance of the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1775) in Lawele Bay, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ege J Fish Aqua Sci. 31(1), 11-18.

Schenk, S. C., & Wainwright, P. C. (2001). Dimorphism and the functional basis of claw strength in six brachyuran crabs. J. Zool., Lond. 255, 105-119.

Siringoringo, Y. N., Desrita., & Yunasfi. (2017). Kelimpahan dan pola pertumbuhan kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata) di hutan mangrove Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang, Kecamatan Medan Belawan, Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Acta Aquatica. 4(1), 26-32.

Sparre, P., & Venema S. C. (1992). Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Asseessment Part 1. Manual. Fao Fish. Tech. Pap. (306/1). Rev.1: 376 p.

Syam, A. R., Suwarso., & Purnamaningtyas, S. E. (2011). Laju eksploitasi kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata) di perairan Mangrove Mayangan, Subang, Jawa Barat. J. Lit. Perikan. Ind. 17(3), 201-207.

Waiho, K., Mustaqim, M., Fazhan, H., Norfaizza, W. I. W., Megat, F. H., Ikhwanuddin, M. (2015). Mating behaviour of the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea: The effect of sex ratio and stocking density on mating success. Aquaculture Reports, 2, 50-57.

Walpole, R.V. E. (1993). Pengantar Statistik (p. 321). Terjemahan B. Sumantri (Edisi Tiga). Jakarta: PT. Gramedia.

Yusrudin. (2016). Analisis beberapa aspek biologi kepiting bakau (Scylla serrata) di perairan Sukolilo, Pantai Timur Surabaya. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura. 6-11.

Zafar, M., Amin, S. M. N., & Rahman, M. M. (2006). Population dynamics of mud crab (Scylla serrata) in the Southeastern coastal region of Bangladesh. Asian Fisheries Sciences, 19, 43-50.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jppi.24.3.2018.187-196


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
View My Stats
p-ISSN 0853-5884
e-ISSN 2502-6542

Find in a library with WorldCatCrossref logoSHERPA/RoMEO Logogoogle scholardoaj