TINGKAT PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT PADA EKOSISTEM WADUK DI JAWA BARAT (SAGULING, CIRATA, DAN JATILUHUR)

Sutrisno Sutrisno, Santosa Koesoemadinata, Imam Taufik

Abstract


Ekosistem waduk di Jawa Barat (Saguling, Cirata, dan Jatiluhur) merupakan perairan yang sangat potensial bagi pengembangan usaha budi daya ikan air tawar dengan sistem keramba jaring apung (KJA). Ekosistem tersebut menghadapi ancaman masuknya cemaran logam berat dari limbah pemukiman, perkotaan, dan industri di sekitarnya, yang dapat berpengaruh negatif terhadap produktivitas perikanan di perairan tersebut. Kegiatan penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menentukan tingkat pencemaran enam logam berat (Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, dan Fe) di ekosistem waduk di atas, untuk mendapatkan data dasar sebagai acuan dalam manajemen perikanan budi daya ikan air tawar yang rasional dan lestari di perairan tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat residu rata-rata keenam logam berat di ketiga waduk tersebut pada umumnya masih sesuai baku mutu air untuk perikanan budi daya air tawar (Peraturan Pemerintah RI  No. 82 Tahun 2001). Tingkat residu logam berat di tiga waduk adalah sebagai berikut: Cirata > Saguling > Jatiluhur. Tingkat konsentrasi logam berat Fe > Mn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa residu logam berat dalam air < ikan < sedimen.

Reservoir ecosystems in West Java (Saguling, Cirata, and Jatiluhur) are potentially suitable waterbodies for the development of floating cage culture. However these aquatic ecosystems are increasingly endangered by heavy metal pollutants introduced from the neighboring rural development, cities and industrial establishments, which may eventually effects, quantatively as well as qualitatively, the productivity of fisheries in the system. Studies to determine the residu levels of highly toxic metals (Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Fe) in water, sediment and fish were carried out in the reservoirs to obtain to define the extent of heavy metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystems. Results of this study revealed that the residue level of the six heavy metals measured in the three reservoirs were still within acceptable limits for fish culture according to the water quality standard issued by the government (Indonesian Government Regulation Number 82 Year 2001). The potential metal pollution in the three reservoirs was noted as follows: Cirata > Saguling > Jatiluhur. The amounts of heavy metal concentration detected in the reservoirs were as follows: Fe > Mn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The study also demonstrated that the increase sequent of heavy metal residues in the reservoirs was: water < fish < the sediment.


Keywords


heavy metal; reservoir; West Java; residu levels; pollution

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.2.1.2007.103-115


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