PEMBENTUKAN INDUK NEOFEMALE UDANG GALAH GIMacro MELALUI ANDREKTOMI

Bambang Iswanto, Ikhsan Khasani, Imron Imron

Abstract


Udang galah merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan yang memiliki sifat seksual dimorfisme pada karakter pertumbuhan. Udang galah jantan dapat tumbuh lebih cepat dibandingkan udang galah betina, sehingga mendorong pengupayaan budidaya udang galah secara monoseks jantan. Benih monoseks jantan dapat diperoleh dengan mengawinkan neofemale, yang dihasilkan melalui proses feminisasi udang galah jantan, dengan jantan normal. Andrektomi merupakan salah satu teknik feminisasi yang dapat dilakukan pada udang galah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas andrektomi terhadap proses feminisasi pada udang galah GIMacro. Proses andrektomi dilakukan terhadap yuwana jantan udang galah GIMacro umur 70—97 hari, dengan ukuran panjang total 3,2—7,6 cm; panjang standar 1,8—4,5 cm; dan bobot 0,29—3,63 g. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa andrektomi menyebabkan kematian yang cukup tinggi, yaitu: 26,83%—37,70% setelah 24 jam dan 35,37%—81,89% setelah 5 hari. Setelah 3 bulan pembesaran, sintasan berkisar 9,45%—57,32%; dengan komposisi 8,51%—91,67% tetap sebagai jantan; 8,33%—40,43% mengalami feminisasi, dan 60,00%—77,27% tampak sebagai jantan dengan berbagai abnormalitas. Udang galah betina hasil andrektomi menunjukkan tanda-tanda mengalami perkembangan gonad, kantung pengeraman, dan dapat memijah dengan sedikit massa telur. Hasil yang diperoleh memberikan harapan bagi pembentukan betina neofemale melalui andrektomi pada yuwana udang galah umur 75—80 hari.

Males of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) grow faster than females. All male seeds can be produced through the mating of neofemale, which can be resulted from the feminization of male freshwater prawn, with normal male. Andrectomy is a method to feminize the male freshwater prawn. This study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of andrectomy on the feminization of giant freshwater prawn, using GIMacro strains as experimental animals. The androgenic glands of male juveniles at 70—97 days old, with 3.2—7.6 cm total length, 1.8—4.5 cm standard length, and 0.29—3.63 g body weight were removed micro surgically (andrectomy). The andrectomized juveniles were then reared for three months to allow the development of their reproductive characteristics. The results showed that andrectomy caused high mortality, about 26.83%—37.70% after 24 hours, and about 35.37%—81.89% after 5 days. At the end of rearing period, survival rate of adult prawn ranged from 9.45%—57.32%, with the proportion of normal male, female (feminized) and abnormal male were 8.51%—91.67%, 8.33%—40.43%, and 60.00%—77.27%, respectively. Despite of the high mortality rate, the successfully feminized individuals showed the development of reproductive characteristics including gonadal and egg chamber developments and egg production. The results suggest that andrectomy, particularly which was applied to the juveniles of 70—97 days old, has been a quite effective technique to produce neofemale on the GIMacro strain of freshwater prawn.


Keywords


andrectomy; feminization; GIMacro strain of freshwater prawn; neofemale

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.3.2.2008.165-173


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