HIBRIDISASI INTRASPESIFIK ANTAR DUA POPULASI IKAN GURAMI GALUNGGUNG (Osphronemus goramy, Lacepede, 1801)

Otong Zenal Arifin, Imron Imron, Asependi Asependi, Ade Hendri, Nandang Muslim, Akhmad Yani

Abstract


Ikan gurami (Osphronemus goramy) populasi Galunggung Hitam (GH) dan Galunggung Putih (GP) telah dibudidayakan secara luas di wilayah Priangan. Dalam upaya mendapatkan strain unggul ikan gurami untuk budidaya, hibridisasi intraspesifik, yaitu persilangan antar strain berbeda dalam spesies yang sama, merupakan pendekatan sederhana yang menarik untuk dieksplorasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai keragaan hasil pemijahan dua populasi ikan gurami. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Balai Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Gurami dan Nilem, Singaparna. Empat populasi ikan diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan dua arah antara ikan gurami yang berwarna putih dan berwarna hitam. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan, hibridisasi antara induk betina gurami Galunggung Hitam dengan induk jantan Galunggung Putih (GH><GP), menghasilkan rerata panjang standar akhir 17,76 ± 1,129 cm; laju pertumbuhan mutlak 10,98 ± 1,240 cm; dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik 0,32 ± 0,017% per hari. Pada karakter lebar akhir, ikan gurami hibrida memiliki nilai 8,98 ± 0,485 cm; pertumbuhan mutlak lebar 5,68 ± 1,014 cm; dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik 0,33 ± 0,030% per hari. Bobot akhir ikan gurami hibrida sebesar 301,9 ± 6,63 g; laju pertumbuhan mutlak 295,6 ± 17,42 g; laju pertumbuhan spesifik 1,29 ± 0,017% per hari; dan sintasan sebesar 77,6 ± 5,26%; serta produktivitas sebesar 8,8 ± 0,70 kg/m2. Nilai heterosis ikan gurami hibrida (GH><GP) untuk seluruh karakter adalah positif. Nilai heterosis karakter bobot akhir adalah 14,1%; pertumbuhan mutlak 14,6%; laju pertumbuhan spesifik 5,38%; sintasan 31,75%; dan produktivitas sebesar 51,72%.

The black Galunggung and white Galunggung strains of the giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) have been widely cultured in Priangan areas, Indonesia. Intraspecific hybridization, a crossing between different strains of the same species, is a simple and commonly used approach to produce a superior strain for aquaculture purposes. This study was aimed to obtain information on the performance of gourami spawned from two different populations. The experiment was conducted at the Aquaculture Development Center of Giant Gourami and Nilem Carp, Singaparna. Four populations of giant gourami were obtained from spawning between white and black giant gourami. The results obtained showed that the hybrid resulted from the female of Black Galunggung and male of White Galunggung (GH><GP) produced the final average standard length of 17.76 ± 1.129 cm, standard length gain of 10.98 ± 1.240 cm, and specific growth rate in standard length of 0.32 ± 0.017% per day. On height character, the hybrid gourami had the final height of 8.98 ± 0.485 cm, a height gain of 5.68 ± 1.014 cm, and specific growth rate in height of 0.33 ± 0.030% per day. The final weight of the hybrid gourami of 301.9 ± 6.63 g, weight gain of 295.6 ± 17.42 g, the specific growth rate in weight of 1.29 ± 0.017% per day, and survival rate of 77.6 ± 5.26%, as well as the productivity of 8.8 ± 0.70 kg/m2. Heterosis value of the hybrid gourami (GH><GP) for the whole character was positive, with the heterosis value on the final weight of 14.1%, growth of 14.6%, the specific growth rate of 5.38%, the survival rate of 31.75%, and productivity of 51.72%.


Keywords


hibridisasi; gurami; pertumbuhan; sintasan; heterosis; hybridization; giant gouramy; growth; survival rate; heterosis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.12.4.2017.315-323


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