EVALUASI VARIASI FENOTIPE DAN GENOTIPE POPULASI IKAN TAMBAKAN DARI JAWA BARAT, KALIMANTAN TENGAH, DAN JAMBI DENGAN TRUSS MORFOMETRIK DAN RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD)

Anang Hari Kristanto, Jojo Subagja, Wahyulia Cahyanti, Otong Zenal Arifin

Abstract


Ikan tambakan (Helostoma temminckii) digemari sebagai ikan konsumsi, di daerah Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Dalam rangka pengembangan budidayanya melalui program domestikasi, informasi terkait variasi fenotipe dan genotipe induk asal perlu dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan karakteristik fenotipe dan genotipe ikan tambakan dari Jawa Barat, Kalimantan Tengah, dan Jambi. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar dan Penyuluhan Perikanan (BRPBATPP), Bogor. Data diperoleh melalui pengukuran jarak bagian tubuh berdasarkan metode truss morphometric dan analisis DNA menggunakan metode RAPD. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa nilai polimorfisme (81,25%) dan heterozigositas (0,3544) tertinggi terdapat pada populasi ikan tambakan asal Kalimantan Tengah. Jarak genetik tertinggi antara populasi Jambi dengan Kalimantan Tengah sebesar 0,1452; sedangkan jarak genetik terendah adalah 0,1044 yaitu antara populasi Jambi dengan Jawa Barat. Berdasarkan uji karakter morfometrik diketahui terdapat 13 karakter yang berbeda nyata yaitu A1, A2, A4, A5, B3, C1, C3, C4, C5, D3, D4, D5, dan D6. Populasi Jambi dengan Jawa Barat memiliki hubungan kekerabatan lebih dekat dibanding dengan populasi Kalimantan Tengah.

Kissing gouramy (Helostoma temminckii) is a favored fish for consumption in Sumatra and Kalimantan area. Currently, information related to phenotypic variation and genotypes of the original broodstocks of kissing gouramy is limited to develop the fish’s culture technology through a domestication program. Therefore, the study was conducted to determine the characteristics of phenotype, and genotype of original kissing gouramy broodstocks. The research was conducted at the Institute for Freshwater Aquaculture Research and Development, Bogor. Data collection was carried out by measuring the body length using truss morphometric method and DNA analysis using the RAPD method. The results showed that the highest polymorphism (81.25%) and heterozygosity (0.3544) were found in the Central Kalimantan fish population. The highest genetic distance between Jambi and Central Kalimantan populations was 0.1452, while the lowest genetic distance was 0.1044 between Jambi and West Java population. Based on the trust morphometric measurement, it was identified 13 different characters on A1, A2, A4, A5, B3, C1, C3, C4, C5, D3, D4, D5, and D6. The Jambi and West Java populations are genetically close to each other while the Central Kalimantan population is relatively separated from the two.


Keywords


keragaman genetik; morfometrik; RAPD; tambakan; genetic variation; morphometric; RAPD; kissing gouramy

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.12.3.2017.203-211


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