Insidensi dan Prevalensi Infeksi WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS Pada PLANKTON DI TAMBAK Budidaya Udang

Bunga Rante Tampangallo, Herlinah Herlinah, Muhammad Chaidir Undu

Abstract


Plankton di tambak super-intensif dalam berbagai bentuk seperti mikroalga, rotifer, dan kopepoda seringkali merupakan agen pembawa virus bintik putih atau white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) yang sangat potensial. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui insidensi dan prevalensi infeksi WSSV pada plankton di tambak budidaya udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei, super-intensif di Kabupaten Barru, Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dari bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2015. Sampel plankton dikoleksi dari sumber pemasukan air tambak superintensif (inlet), outlet, instalasi pengolahan air limbah tambak yang sedang melakukan kegiatan budidaya. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa insidensi infeksi WSSV terjadi di bulan Januari, Oktober, dan November. Pada bulan Januari, plankton yang terdeteksi mengalami infeksi WSSV adalah dari petakan tambak P1, outlet-1, outlet dan inlet tambak-3, serta inlet hatchery. Selanjutnya pada bulan Oktober, plankton yang terinfeksi WSSV adalah dari petakan tambak P2, P7, P8, dan IPAL. Pada bulan November, WSSV hanya terdeteksi pada plankton di inlet petakan tambak P3 dan inlet hatchery. Prevalensi WSSV tertinggi diperoleh pada plankton di bulan November (66,67%); bulan Januari (62,5%); dan Oktober (40,00%). Plankton dalam petakan tambak cenderung lebih sensitif terhadap infeksi WSSV sehingga berpotensi sebagai vektor dalam tambak pembesaran udang.

Plankton, found as microalgae, rotifer, and copepods, in super intensive ponds are potential disease agents of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). This study aims to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of WSSV on plankton in super intensive Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp ponds in Barru Regency, South Sulawesi. The study was conducted for one year from January to December 2015. Plankton were collected from the inlets, outlets, and waste water management plant of the super intensive ponds which were running of culturing shrimps. The results showed that the incidences of WSSV infection on plankton were occurred in January, October, and November of 2015. The detected plankton with WSSV infection occurred in January and were collected from pond PI, outlet-I, outlets and inlets of pond-3 as well as the inlets of the hatchery. In October, the identified plankton infected with WSSV were collected from ponds P2, P7, P8, and their waste water management plant. In November, WSSV was only detected on plankton found in the inlets of pond-3 and the inlets of the hatchery. The highest WSSV prevalence was obtained on plankton isolated in November (66.67%) followed by plankton isolated in January (62.5%), and in October (40%). The study found that plankton in pond tend to be more sensitive to WSSV infection which could potentially serve as WWSV vectors in shrimp culture.


Keywords


insidensi; prevalensi; WSSV; plankton; budidaya super-intensif; incidence; prevalence; WSSV; plankton; supra-intensive shrimp farm

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.12.4.2017.361-367


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