PERFORMA REPRODUKSI UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon TRANSGENIK PASCA INSEMINASI BUATAN MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER SPERMATOFOR YANG BERBEDA

Samuel Lante, Andi Tenriulo, Andi Parenrengi

Abstract


Udang windu transgenik merupakan udang hasil rekayasa dengan mengintroduksikan gen antivirus yang diisolasi dari udang windu untuk menghasilkan fenotipe yang lebih baik. Domestikasi udang transgenik telah dilakukan dan berhasil memijah/bertelur, tetapi umumnya telurnya infertil yang disebabkan tidak terjadinya pembuahan di tambak pemeliharaan. Udang betina tidak kawin ditandai tidak membawa spermatofor di telikumnya. Upaya untuk mendapatkan telur fertil udang dengan inseminasi buatan (IB) perlu dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengevaluasi performa reproduksi udang betina transgenik dan mutu larva yang dihasilkan pasca IB menggunakan sumber spermatofor yang berbeda. Penelitian ini dirancang dengan tiga perlakuan yaitu: IB menggunakan spermatofor udang windu jantan transgenik (SJT), spermatofor udang windu jantan alam Sulawesi Selatan (SulSel) (SJS) dan spermatofor udang windu jantan alam Aceh (SJA). IB dilakukan pada udang windu betina transgenik setelah dua hari moulting. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa udang windu betina transgenik pasca IB perlakuan SJT menghasilkan total telur fertil sebanyak 766.949 butir, perlakuan SJS 535.644 butir dan perlakuan SJA 678.016 butir dengan daya tetas telur fertil yaitu: pada SJT, SJS, dan SJA masing-masing adalah 53,5%; 53,7%; dan 55,0%. Uji vitalitas larva dengan perendaman dalam larutan formalin 150-200 mg/L, perendaman air tawar: 5-15 menit, dan pengeringan 3-9 menit menghasilkan sintasan larva udang yang relatif sama pada ketiga perlakuan. Nilai morfologi larva perlakuan SJT, SJA, dan SJS adalah masing-masing 85,0; 84,5; dan 75,0. Dari hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa performa reproduksi udang windu betina transgenik dan mutu larva yang dihasilkan pasca IB tidak dipengaruhi oleh sumber spermatofor induk udang windu jantan Penaeus monodon.

Transgenic tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon has been developed in the last decade to equip shrimp with immunity against viral diseases. However, the effort to produce large quantities of specific pathogen resistance (SPR) tiger shrimp seed is hampered by several constraints in the domestication process. The successfulness of domesticated broodstock in producing larvae is very low due to low fertilization rate. An artificial insemination (AI) offers a solution to increase fertilization rate in crustacean. This study was aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of female transgenic tiger shrimp broodstock and their larval quality after artificially inseminated with males from different sources. The spermatophores of male from different sources i.e. transgenic male spermatophore (SJT), wild male from South Sulawesi (SJS), and wild male from Aceh (SJA) were collected through electric shock and inseminated to female transgenic broodstock two days after moulting. The results showed that the total numbers of fertile eggs produced from SJT, SJS, and SJA treatment were 766,949 pcs; 535,644 pcs; and 678,016 pcs, respectively and not significantly different (P>0.05). Similar to the number of fertile eggs, the hatching rate of eggs of SJT (53.5%), SJS (53.7%), and SJA (55.0%) also did not indicate any significant differences (P>0.05). On the larval vitality test by soaking the larvae in formalin and freshwater as well as by air exposure at different duration showed no significant difference on the survival rate (P>0.05) as indicated by score value at each treatment of 85.0, 84.5, and 75.0 for SJT, SJS, and SJA, respectively. In conclusion, the reproductive performance of female transgenic tiger shrimp and their larval quality were not affected by the different sources of spermatophores inseminated artificially during the spawning cycle.


Keywords


inseminasi buatan; performa reproduksi; spermatofor; udang windu transgenik;artificial insemination; reproductive performances; spermatophore; transgenic tiger shrimp

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.13.1.2018.11-20


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