VAKSIN KERING BEKU SEL UTUH BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila UNTUK PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT MOTILE AEROMONADS SEPTICEMIA PADA IKAN LELE, NILA, DAN GURAMI

Desy Sugiani, Taukhid Taukhid, Uni Purwaningsih, Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

Abstract


Vaksinasi merupakan salah satu cara yang efektif untuk pencegahan penyakit infeksius pada budidaya ikan. Produk vaksin yang tersedia saat ini masih berbasis produk cair (water based vaccines), yang memiliki kekurangan dalam stabilitas produk yang tidak tahan lama jika disimpan dalam suhu ruang dan keterbatasan dalam tranportasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode preparasi sediaan produk vaksin sel utuh Aeromonas hydrophila dalam bentuk kering beku (freeze dried) untuk pengendalian penyakit pada ikan lele (Clarias sp.), nila (Oreochromis niloticus), dan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy). Penelitian dilakukan dengan membuat produk vaksin kering beku pada suhu -100°C, uji mutu, uji keamanan, dan uji efikasi. Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan produk vaksin kering beku yang aman diaplikasikan pada ikan lele, nila, dan gurami, serta dapat menginduksi peningkatan level titer antibodi. Sediaan vaksin sel utuh A. hydrophila dengan metode kering beku dapat mereduksi berat produk vaksin cair 100 g menjadi serbuk sebesar 4,2 g. Efikasi vaksin menghasilkan tingkat sintasan relatif (RPS/relative percent survival) pada ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) 45,83%; ikan lele (Clarias sp.) 70%; dan ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy) 31,67%. Vaksin kering beku sel utuh bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila paling efektif diberikan pada ikan lele untuk mencegah penyakit Motile Aeromonads Septicemia.

Vaccination is one of the most effective methods to prevent disease outbreaks and distribution in aquaculture. Commercial fish vaccine products are mainly available in liquid-based products (water-based vaccines), which have several limitations such as stability issues of the products (durability) when stored at room temperature, bulky packaging, and transportation complexity during distribution. This study aimed to develop a method of vaccine preparation using the freeze-dried method as part of the management control of Aeromonads septicemia disease in freshwater aquaculture. The study consisted of several stages: the first stage was the production of freeze-dried Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine product at -100°C. The second stage was vaccine quality test followed by the third stage which was vaccine efficacy test. This research produced frozen dried vaccine products that were considered safe to be applied to catfish, tilapia, and gourami, and could increase the antibody titer. The formation of the whole cell vaccine of A. hydrophila using the freeze-dried method could reduce the weight of the liquid form of the vaccine product from 100 g to a powder weighing only 4.2 g. The results of the vaccine efficacy test showed the relative percent survivals (RPSs) of Clarias sp., Oreochromis niloticus and Osphronemus gouramy were 70%, 45.83%, and 31.67%, respectively. Freeze dried vaccine of whole cells Aeromonas hydrophila are most effective in catfish to prevent Motile Aeromanads Septicemia.


Keywords


vaksin kering beku; Aeromonas hydrophila; lele; nila; gurami; RPS; freeze-dried vaccine; Aeromonas hydrophila; Oreochromis niloticus; Clarias sp.; Osphronemus gouramy; RPS

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.13.2.2018.159-167


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