KARAKTER GENOTIPE TIGA POPULASI IKAN RAINBOW AJAMARU (Melanotaenia ajamaruensis) DARI ALAM DAN BUDIDAYA MENGGUNAKAN RAPD

Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas, Shofihar Sinansari, Melta Rini Fahmi, Eni Kusrini, Bastiar Nur

Abstract


Ikan rainbow Ajamaru (Melanotaenia ajamarunensis) yang dinyatakan punah pada tahun 1996 merupakan ikan endemik dari Danau Ajamaru, Papua. Namun ikan ini berhasil ditemukan kembali pada tahun 2007 di Sungai Kaliwensi, Sorong, Papua. Domestikasi ex-situ ikan rainbow Ajamaru sedang dilakukan di Balai Riset Budidaya ikan Hias, Depok-Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi perbedaan genotipe ikan rainbow Ajamaru di alam dan budidaya melalui analisis keragaman genetik untuk melihat adanya perubahan genetik, migrasi maupun mutasi gen. Metode yang digunakan adalah Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) dengan 3 jenis primer (OPA 03, OPB 6, dan OPZ 5). Setiap populasi baik, dari alam (Papua) maupun budidaya (Depok dan Papua) masing-masing diambil secara acak sebanyak 10 sampel ikan uji. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai keragaman genetik pada ikan di alam lebih rendah (62,5%) dibanding ikan budidaya di Papua (70,31%) dan tertinggi pada ikan budidaya di Depok (73,43%). Heterozigositas pada ikan di alam lebih rendah (0,172) dibanding ikan budidaya di Papua (0,241) dan di Depok (0,270). Jarak genetik terjauh ditunjukkan antara populasi ikan alam dan populasi ikan budidaya Papua, sedangkan jarak genetik terdekat antara populasi ikan budidaya di Papua dengan di Depok. Karakter genotipe yang dihasilkan pada tiga populasi ikan rainbow Ajamaru adalah memiliki corak DNA yang berbeda nyata (P<0,05). Perbedaan yang dihasilkan dari karakter genotipe karena respon genotip dari tiap individu dan daya adaptasi ikan berbeda-beda pada habitat yang berbeda.

Ajamaru rainbow, an endemic fish from Lake Ajamaru, Papua, once declared extinct in 1996. However, it was rediscovered in 2007, in Kaliwensi River, Sorong, Papua. Currently, the Ajamaru rainbow fish is being domesticated ex-situ at the Research Center for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, West Java. The aim of the research was to determine the genotype characteristics of wild and cultured Ajamaru rainbow including genetic change, drift, migration, and mutation using genetic variance analysis. The genetic analysis applied was Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using OPA-03, OPB-6, and OPZ-5 primers. Ten samples were used for each population. The results showed that the three populations of Ajamaru rainbow fish have significantly different (P<0.05) of DNA polymorphism. The lowest value of genetic variance was found in the wild fish (62.5%) followed by the cultured fish located in Papua (70.31%), and the highest was observed in the cultured fish located in Depok (73.43%). Heterozygosity of the wild fish was lower (0.172) than that of the cultured fish in Papua (0.241) and in Depok (0.270). The high genetic distance was found between the wild and cultured fish from Papua. The closest relationship was between the fish culture in Papua and Depok. The genotype character produced in the three Ajamaru rainbow fish populations was have significantly different (P<0.05) of DNA polymorphism. The differences that result form genotype characters because of the genotypic response of each individual and the adaptability of fish vary in different habitats.
 


Keywords


ikan rainbow; Melanotaenia; genetic; RAPD; rainbow fish; Melanotaenia; genetic; RAPD

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.13.2.2018.105-113


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