PERBAIKAN KARAKTER PERTUMBUHAN IKAN MAS “MUSTIKA”MELALUI SELEKSI

Didik Ariyanto, Yogi Himawan, Khairul Syahputra, Flandrianto Sih Palimirmo, Suharyanto Suharyanto

Abstract


Seleksi ikan mas berdasarkan marka ketahanan terhadap penyakit (MHC-II) telah menghasilkan ikan mas “Mustika” sebagai ikan unggul tahan KHV (koi herpes virus). Adanya fenomena trade-off antar karakter menyebabkan laju pertumbuhan ikan mas Mustika relatif lebih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan memperbaiki performa ikan mas Mustika khususnya pada karakter pertumbuhan melalui seleksi. Pembentukan populasi F-1 hingga F-3 dilakukan menggunakan metode “back-cross”, yaitu betina F-0><jantan F-1, betina F-1><jantan F-2 dan betina F-2><jantan F-3. Evaluasi pertumbuhan populasi ikan mas Mustika dari F-1, F-2, dan F-3 dilakukan pada karamba jaring apung selama tiga bulan. Pada evaluasi penampilan fenotipik populasi F-3 ikan mas Mustika pada kegiatan budidaya, digunakan populasi ikan mas Majalaya dari unit pembenihan rakyat (UPR) sebagai populasi kontrol eksternal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai respons seleksi karakter bobot ikan mas Mustika F-1, F-2, dan F-3 secara berturut-turut sebesar 7,29%; 34,51%; dan 8,12%; sehingga total respons seleksi yang diperoleh sebesar 49,72%. Pada kegiatan budidaya, populasi ikan mas Mustika mempunyai pertumbuhan, bobot individu panen, biomassa panen, konversi rasio pakan, dan produktivitas lebih baik dibandingkan dengan populasi ikan mas Majalaya dari UPR, masing-masing sebesar 5,99%; 11,60%; 13,32%; 39,59%; dan 11,19%.

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) using MHC-II has successfully formed “Mustika” as a resistant common carp strain against KHV. However, the trade-off among characters to form the KHV resistant carp strain has suppressed the growth trait of the species. This study was aimed to improve the growth character of Mustika common carp based on the selection of growth performance. The F-1, F-2, and F-3 populations were formed using the “walk-back” method by crossing females of F-0 ><males of F-1, females of F-1 ><males of F-2, and females of F-2 ><males of F-3. Growth evaluation of each generation was based on body weight gain during the three months experiment. The growth evaluation of the F-3 Majalaya strain from a local breeder (UPR) was used as the external control. The results showed that the response to the selection of F-1, F-2, and F-3 of Mustika common carp were 7.29%, 34.51%, and 8.12%, respectively, with a total response to selection of 49.72%. In culture condition, the Mustika common carp has a better specific growth rate, individual weight, biomass at harvest, food conversion ratio, and productivity than the Majalaya common carp of 5.99%, 11.60%, 13.32%, 39.59%, and 11.19%, respectively.


Keywords


genetik; ikan mas; pertumbuhan; seleksi; genetic; common carp; growth; selection

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.14.2.2019.71-76


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