BIOAKUMULASI KADMIUM DAN MERKURI PADA KERANG HIJAU, SERTA ANALISIS MULTI MEDIUM RISIKO KESEHATAN DI KAWASAN PEMUKIMAN PESISIR

Anna Rejeki Simbolon

Abstract


Kadmium dan merkuri merupakan logam berat yang bersifat toksik dan umumnya terdapat dalam limbah antropogenik yang masuk keperairan dan terakumulasi dalam air, sedimen, dan biota dasar. Kerang hijau (Perna viridis) merupakan jenis kerang yang menjadi salah satu bahan pangan bagi masyarakat. Kandungan kadmium dan merkuri dalam air dan sedimen akan terakumulasi pada kerang hijau dan menjadi sumber media paparan bagi manusia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bioakumulasi logam kadmium dan merkuri di kerang hijau dan risiko kesehatan bagi masyarakat di kawasan pemukiman pesisir. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei di tiga titik lokasi pengambilan sampel di kawasan pemukiman pesisir DKI Jakarta. Nilai bioakumulasi dihitung degan menggunakan rasio dari kadar logam di kerang hijau dan sedimen. Analisis multi medium risiko menggunakan analisis risiko yang dikembangkan oleh United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Total tingkat risiko nonkarsinogenik dinyatakan dalam hazard index (HI), dan risiko karsinogenik dinyatakan dalam cancer risk (CR). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan nilai bioakumulasi logam kadmium dan merkuri yang tidak berbeda secara signifikan, dan konsentrasi logam kadmium di kerang hijau berkorelasi positif dan berbeda nyata dengan konsentrasi logam kadmium disedimen; hal ini menunjukkan kemampuan kerang hijau dalam mengakumulasi logam kadmium. Selain itu, analisis risiko kesehatan menunjukan nilai HI>1 dan CR>10-4. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan adanya bio-akumulasi logam kadmium dan merkuri pada kerang hijau dan adanya risiko kesehatan terhadap masyarakat di kawasan pemukiman baik efek karsinogenik maupun nonkarsinogenik dengan media jalur paparan yang paling dominan ialah bahan pangan (diet) kerang.

Cadmium and mercury are toxic heavy metals, generally found in anthropogenic wastes, and accumulated in water, sediments, and benthic biota. Green mussels (Perna viridis) as one of the benthic biota is a popular delicacy not only in the Indonesian coastal community but also in the Southeast Asian countries. However, the green mussel is also well known as a bioaccumulator for heavy metals, including cadmium and mercury, and thus poses a great risk to human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the bioaccumulation level of metal cadmium and mercury in green mussels and their health risks to people in coastal residential areas. The study was carried out by a survey method in three sampling locations in coastal settlement area DKI Jakarta. The bioaccumulation value was calculated using the ratio of the metal content in green mussels and sediments. Risk analysis used the approach of Multi-medium Risk Analysis suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The total level of non-carcinogenic risk was expressed in the hazard index (HI), and the carcinogenic risk was expressed in cancer risk (CR). The results of this study showed that the bioaccumulation of cadmium and mercury in green mussels did not differ significantly which cadmium concentration in green shells is positively correlated and significantly different from sediment; this shows the ability of green mussels to accumulate cadmium . Meanwhile, the health risk analysis shows HI> 1 and CR> 10-4. This study concludes that cadmium and mercury metals are present in green mussels. This study also concludes that the two heavy metals pose health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) to the residents of the nearby coastal areas through shellfish as the most dominant pathway.


Keywords


bioakumulasi; kadmium; merkuri; multi medium risiko; kerang hijau; bioaccumulation; cadmium; mercury; multi medium.risk, green mussels

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.14.2.2019.119-126


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