KERAGAMAN GENOTIPE TIGA GENERASI IKAN RAINBOW KURUMOI (Melanotaenia parva) HASIL DOMESTIKASI BERDASARKAN RAPD; Genotype Diversity in Three Generations of Domesticated Kurumoi Rainbow Fish (Melanotaenia parva) Based on RAPD Method.

Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas, Tutik Kadarini

Abstract


Ikan rainbow Kurumoi (Melanotaenia parva) adalah ikan endemik Danau Kurumoi, Papua Barat, Indonesia. Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias (BPPBIH), Depok telah berhasil melakukan domestikasi dan menghasilkan beberapa generasi ikan rainbow Kurumoi. Ikan rainbow Kurumoi memijah secara alami, sehingga kemungkinan terjadinya inbreeding tinggi. Oleh karena itu, sangatlah penting untuk mengevaluasi keragaman genetik ikan rainbow Kurumoi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas genetik dengan mengevaluasi keragaman genotipe tiga generasi ikan rainbow Kurumoi menggunakan metode RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) dengan tiga jenis primer, yaitu: OPA-18, OPZ-5, dan OPZ-13. Setiap generasi diambil 10 ekor ikan secara acak. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa keragaman genotipe ikan generasi pertama (69,25%) relatif lebih rendah (P>0,05) daripada generasi kedua (76,9%) dan ketiga (76,9%). Nilai heterozigositas cenderung meningkat dari generasi ke generasi. Heterozigositas ikan generasi pertama adalah 0,21; generasi kedua sebesar 0,24; dan generasi ketiga sebesar 0,25. Jarak genetik terjauh adalah antara generasi pertama dan generasi ketiga, yaitu sebesar 0,19. Dengan demikian, proses domestikasi yang telah dilakukan tidak menyebabkan penurunan keragaman genotipe ikan rainbow Kurumoi.

Kurumoi rainbow fish (Melanotaenia parva) is an endemic species from Kurumoi Lake, West Papua, Indonesia. Research and Development for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok has successfully domesticated and produce Kurumoi rainbow fish for several generations. This fish is breed naturally, inbreeding probability is highly occure. It is important to evaluate genetic diversity of Kurumoi rainbow fish. Aim of the research was to evaluate genotype diversity at three generations of Kurumoi rainbow fish using RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) method with three primers, namely OPA-18, OPZ-5, and OPZ-13. In the research, 10 fishes were randomly taken from each generation. The research found that genotype diversity of fish first generation (69.25%) was relatively lower (P>0.05) than second (76.9%) and third (76.9%) generations. Heterozygosity value tended to increase by generation to generation. Heterozygosity at first generation was 0.21, 0.24 at second generation and 0.25 at third generation. The highest genetic distance was between the first and third generation (0.19). Thus, the domestication process that has been done does not cause a decrease in genotype diversity of Kurumoi rainbow fish.


Keywords


ikan rainbow Kurumoi; RAPD; keragaman genotipe; jarak genetik; Kurumoi rainbow fish; RAPD; genotype diversity; genetic distance

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.11.2.2016.107-114


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