PERFORMA REPRODUKSI IKAN LELE MUTIARA (Clarias gariepinus)

Bambang Iswanto, Rommy Suprapto, Huria Marnis, Imron Imron

Abstract


Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan salah satu strain ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus) yang memiliki keunggulan performa pertumbuhan, efisiensi pakan, keseragaman ukuran, serta ketahanan terhadap penyakit dan lingkungan. Pengggunaan benih ikan lele Mutiara dalam kegiatan budidaya dapat menghasilkan produktivitas yang lebih tinggi, sehingga permintaan benihnya semakin meningkat. Jumlah dan kualitas benih yang dihasilkan ditentukan oleh karakteristik reproduksi induknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi performa reproduksi ikan lele Mutiara, antara lain umur awal matang gonad, indeks gonadosomatik dan ovisomatik, fekunditas, derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan waktu rematurasi. Penentuan umur awal matang gonad dilakukan melalui pembedahan calon induk ikan lele Mutiara sejak berumur empat bulan. Pengamatan indeks gonadosomatik dan ovisomatik, fekunditas, derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan waktu rematurasi dilakukan terhadap induk ikan lele Mutiara berumur 10 bulan yang digunakan dalam proses pemijahan alami dan buatan. Calon induk dan induk ikan lele Mutiara yang digunakan pada penelitian ini dipelihara dalam kolam tanah dan diberi pakan buatan komersial dengan kadar protein 30% untuk calon induk dan 35% untuk induk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele Mutiara mulai matang gonad pada umur lima bulan. Induk jantan ikan lele Mutiara yang matang gonad memiliki indeks gonadosomatik sebesar 0,22%-1,47%; sedangkan indeks ovisomatik induk betina berkisar 10,30%-21,33%; dengan fekunditas berkisar 72.700-165.900 butir/kg bobot induk (rata-rata 102.400 ± 25.000 butir/kg bobot induk). Pemijahan buatan induk ikan lele Mutiara menghasilkan derajat fertilisasi berkisar 76,53%-99,22% (rata-rata 91,48 ± 5,38%) dan derajat penetasan berkisar 64,93%-91,96% (rata-rata 80,45 ± 6,28%). Waktu rematurasi induk jantan ikan lele Mutiara sekitar dua minggu, sedangkan pada induk betina selama 1,5 bulan.

Mutiara is one of several strains of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) which has various superior traits related to growth, feed efficiency, size homogeneity, and resistance to disease and environmental conditions. The use of the Mutiara seed for aquaculture resulted in a higher productivity, thus demands of the seed significantly increased. Quantity and quality of the seed depend on reproductive characteristics of the broodstocks. The present study was carried out to explore reproductive performances of Mutiara strain broodstocks including the age of first maturity, gonadosomatic and ovisomatic index, fecundity, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and rematuration period. Determination on the age of first maturity was conducted through dissection of the prematured fish since the fish were at four months of age. Observations on the gonadosomatic and ovisomatic index, fecundity, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and rematuration period were conducted on the broodstocks with 10 months of age used for both artificial and natural breedings. The results suggested that the first maturity of Mutiara strain was attained at five months of age. Gonadosomatic index of mature male Mutiara strain ranged 0.22%-1.47%, while ovisomatic index for the female were in a range of 10.30%-21.33% with fecundity ranged 72,000-165,900 eggs/kg of body weight (mean of 102,400 ± 25,000 eggs/kg of body weight). Furthermore, artificial breeding of the broodstocks of Mutiara strain resulted in a range of 76.53%-99.22% (mean of 91.48 ± 5.38%) for fertilization rate and ranged 64.93%-91.96% (mean of 80.45 ±6.28%) for hatching rate. Rematuration of the male broodstocks of Mutiara strain occurred within two weeks, while the females took 1.5 months.


Keywords


matang gonad; gonadosomatik; ovisomatik; fekunditas; derajat fertilisasi; derajat penetasan; rematurasi; ikan lele Mutiara (Clarias gariepinus); maturity; gonadosomatic; ovisomatic; fecundity; fertilization rate; hatching rate; rematuration; Mutiara strai

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/ma.11.1.2016.1-9


Creative Commons License
Media Akuakultur is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
View My Stats
p-ISSN 1907-6762
e-ISSN 2502-9460

Find in a library with WorldCatCrossref logoSHERPA/RoMEO Logogoogle scholarDirectory of Open Access Journals