The Effectiveness of Artificial Reefs in Improving Ecosystem Health to Increase Coral Reef Resilience

Reny Puspasari, Ngurah Nyoman Wiadnyana, Sri Turni Hartati, Rita Rachmawati, Yunaldi Yahya


Some coral bleaching phenomena related to climate variability (ENSO or IOD) lead to coral mortality resulting in ecosystem damage and decreased ecosystem health.  The artificial reef is one of the management efforts adopted by stakeholders to restore coral reef conditions. Thriving artificial reefs could extend coral coverage and provide a new habitat for several marine organisms and divert anthropogenic pressure on natural coral ecosystems. The current research aims to identify the impact of artificial reef installment on ecosystems and fisheries. Three indicators for health coral reef ecosystems were determined: increased coral cover, biofouling organism, and fish abundance and diversity. An index to measure the artificial reef impacts on fisheries is fish production after installment.  Data collection was done in 2017 in around Bali area, including the occurrence of coral bleaching, the number of artificial reefs installed, and the case of positive impacts of artificial reefs.  The data were analyzed to measure any changes that occurred after the artificial reef installment.  The results show that an artificial reef installment has a significant impact on increasing coral cover, fouling organisms, and fish abundance and species richness.  The new community structure development varies among the artificial reef depend on the environmental condition.  However, the impact of artificial reef installment could not be directly quantified on fish production due to unavailability monitoring data.


Artificial reefs; climate variability; resilience

Full Text:



Ampou, E.E., Johan, O., Menkes, C.E., Nino, F., Birol F., Ouillon, S., & Andrefouet, S. (2017). Coral mortality induced by the 2015 – 2016 El Nino in Indonesia: the effect of rapid sea level fall. Biogeosciences. 14, 817 – 826. Doi: 10.5194/bg-14-817-2017.

Agency of Marine and Fisheries, Province of Bali. (2017, in Indonesian). Efforts and monitoring of habitat rehabilitation by Department of Marine and Fisheries, Province of Bali. Presentation material delivered at Focus Group Discussion on “The Assessment of Habitat Rehabilitation Effort as Mitigation option in dealing with Climate Change”, held in Bali on October 3rd 2017.

Andayani, A. & Ampou, E.E. (2018, in Indonesian). The utilization of Bioreeftek as alternatife artificial reef in Buleleng Regency Bali. in. Rehabilitiation of coral reef ecosystems for fish resources sustainability. Suharsono, N. N. Wiadnyana, & Edrus, I. N. (Eds.). AMaFRaD Press. 111 – 127.

Awuy, G., Rondonuwu, A.B., & Kambey, A.D. (2017, in Indonesian). Coral reef fish community in artificial reef installed in Kareko Waters, North Lembeh District, Bitung North Sulawesi. Jurnal Ilmiah Platax. 5(2), 145 – 154.

Aziz, A.M. (2010, in Indonesian). Management implication of coral attachement in cement artificial reef in Pramuka Island, Seribu Islands, Jakarta. Thesis. Post Graduate School of Bogor Agricultural University. 112 p.

Aziz, A.M., Kamal, M.M., Zamani, N.P., & Subhan, B. (2011). Coral settlement on concrete artificial reefs in Pramuka island waters, Seribu Islands, Jakarta and management option. Journal of Indonesia Coral Reef, 1(1), 55 – 64.

De Carlo T.M., Cohen A.L., Wong, G.T. F., Davis, K.A., Lohmann, P., & Soong, K. (2017). Mass coral mortality under local amplification of 2 °C ocean warming. Scientific Reports. 7:44586 | DOI: 10.1038/srep44586.

Desistiano, M. (2008, in Indonesian). Comparison of reef fish abundance in biorock artificial reef with coral transplantation in Tanjung Lesung Banten. Under Graduate Thesis. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science. Bogor Agricultural University. 78 p.

Duffy, J.E., Lefcheck, J.S., Stuart-Smith, R.D., Navarrete, S.A.. & Edgar, G.J. (2016). Biodiversity enahance reef fish biomass and resistance to climate change. Proceeding of National Academy of Science, 113(22), 6230 – 6235. Doi: 10.1073/pnas.1524465113.

Edrus, I.N., Syam, A.R., & Suprapto. (1996). Penelitian komunitas ii(an pada terumbu buatan di perairan Dusun Jemeluk, Kabupaten Amlapura, Bali. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia, 2(1), 1-14.

Edrus, I.N. (2002). Assessment of community participation in the coastal resource rehabilitation project in Bali, Indonesia. Thesis. University of Phillipines Los Banos.

Fadli, N., Campbell, S.J., Ferguson, K., Keyse, J., Rudi, E., Riedel, A., & Baird, A.H. (2012). The role of habitat creation in coral reef conservation: a case study from Aceh, Indonesia. Fauna & Flora International, Oryx. 46(4), 501–507. Downloaded from IP address:, on 22 Oct 2018 at 05:48:58, subject to the Cambridge Core terms of use, available at

Ferse, S.C.A. (2008). Artificial structure and coral transplantation: fish community responses and effects on coral recruitment in North Sulawesi/Indonesia. Dissertation. Zentrum für Marine Tropenökologie Center for Tropical Marine Ecology. Universitat Bremen. Germany. 169 pages.

Hartati, S.T., Syam, A.R., Purnamangtyas, S.E., Purnomo, K., S.M. Syarif. A. Thamin, I. Suprihanto, Wasilun, Mujiyanto, & Edrus, I.N. (2006, in Indonesian). Development of reef fish stock after habitat rehabilitation in Saleh Bay, West Nusa Tenggara and Jemeluk Bay Bali. Technical Report. Center for Capture Fisheries. 94 pp.

Hartati, S.T. (2008, in Indonesian). Coastal habitat rehabilitation through development of artificial reef. BAWAL, 2(1), 35 – 43. Accessed date on June 23rd 2019. (date accessed on 20 February 2020).

Indonesia Nature Fondation (2017, unpublished data).

Johan,O & Quinn, N. (2014). Analysis of the resilience of West Sumatra Coral reefs after the 1997 massive coral die off. Paper presented in Third Asia Pacific Symposium. 25 June 2014,Taiwan.26 pp.

Koeck, B., Pastor, J. Larenie, L., Astruch, P., Saragoni, G., Jarraya, M., & Lenfant, P. (2011). Evaluation of impact of artificial reefs on artisanal fisheries: need for complementary approaches. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 59 (Special Issue CARAH), 1-11.

Krohling, W., Brotto, D.D., & Zalmon, I.R. (2006). Fouling community recruitment on artificial reef in the North Coast of Rio de Janeiro State. Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue) 39, 1- 4.

Lindberg, W.J. & Seaman, W. (Eds, 2011). Guidelines and Management Practices for Artificial Reef Siting, Use, Construction, and Anchoring in Southeast Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Miami, FL. xi and 150 p.

Manembu, I., Adrianto, L., Bengen, D., & Yulianda F. (2014, in Indonesian). Reef fish abundance in artificial reef in Ratatotok North Sulawesi, BAWAL, 6(1), 55 - 61.

Manembu, I., Adrianto, L., Bengen, D.G., & Yulianda F. (2012, in Indonesian). Distribution of reef and reef fishes in Buyat Bay in South East Minahasa. Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan Tropis, 3(1), 28 - 32.

Marine and Fisheries Office of Badung District, Bali Province. (2017, in Indonesian). Statsistical data of Fisheries of Bdung Distric, Bali.

McClanahan, T.R, Ateweberhan, M., Muhando, C., Maina, J., & Mohammed, M.S. (2007). Effects Of Climate And Seawater Temperature Variation On Coral Bleaching And Mortality. Ecological Monographs, 77(4), 503–525. Ecological Society of America.

Mujiyanto., & Hartati, S.T. (2011, in Indonesian). Composition and abundance of coral reef fishes and the growth of fouling organism in artificial reef in Saleh Bay West Nusa tenggara. J. Lit. Perikan. Ind. 17(1), 51 - 59.

Mujiyanto, Riswanto., & Wijaya, D. (2018, in Indonesian). Similarity of fouling organisms on the specific artificial reef for lobster installed in Prigi Bay East Java and Pangandaran Bay West Java. In: Rehabilitation of Coral Reef Ecosystems for Fish Resources Sustainability, Suharsono, N. N. Wiadnyana, & Edrus I. N (Eds.). AMaFRaD Press. 203 – 220.

Oktaviani, D., Hartati, S.T., Puspasari, R., Wiadnyana, N.N., Watupongoh, N. J., & Gunawan A. (2016, in Indonesian). Ecosystem rehabilitation model by artificial reef development in West Sumatera Province. Technical Report. Center for Fisheries Research and Development. The Agency of Marine and Fisheries Research. Ministry of Marine Affair and Fisheries.

Oktaviani, D., & Wiadnyana, N.N. (2018, in Indonesian). The installment of artificial reefs in Mandeh waters, Pesisir Selatan Regency, West Sumatera Province. In: Rehabilitiation of Coral Reef Ecosystems for Fish Resources Sustainability, Suharsono, N. N. Wiadnyana, & Edrus, I. N. (Eds.). AMaFRaD Press. 91 – 110.

Pascaline, B., Catherine, S., Charbonnel, E., & Patrice, F. (2011). Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of Golfe Juan Marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean). Brazilian Journal of Oceanography. 59(special issue CARAH), 167-176.

Puspasari, R., Rahmadi, P., Rahmawati, P.F., & Samu-Samu, A.S. (2015, in Indonesian). The interaction of Climate variability with coral reef ecosystem and reef fishes. J. Lit. Perikan. Ind. 21(4), 211 - 220.

Puspasari, R., Rahmawati, P.F., Susilo, E., Wijopriono, & Wiadnyana, N.N. (2018). The impact of environmental changing, food availability and anthropogenic pressure on sardine (Sardinella lemuru) CPUE in Bali strait waters. Jurnal Segara. 14(2), 107 – 118.

Puspasari, R. & Oktaviani, D. (2018, in Indonesian). Density of Biofouling organism in intial phase of artificial reefs installed in Mandeh waters, West Sumatera. In: Rehabilitiation of Coral Reef Ecosystems for Fish Resources Sustainability, Suharsono, N. N. Wiadnyana, & Edrus I. N (Eds.). AMaFRaD Press.

Rogers, C. (2013). Review Article Coral Reef Resilience through Biodiversity. Oceanography. article/service: “Science for Environment Policy”: European Commission DG Environment News Alert Service, edited by SCU, The University of the West of England, Bristol. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Article ID 739034. 18 pages.

Satria, H. & Mujiyanto. (2011, in Indonesian). Coral reef fish community structure in artificial reef in Saleh Bay West Nusa Tenggara. Prosiding of the 3rd National Forum of Fish stock enhancement, October 18th 2011.

Suharsono., & Kiswara, W. (1984, in Indonesian). Kematian alami karang di Laut Jawa. Oseana, X, 31- 40.

Syam, A.R., Edrus, I.N., & Hartati, S.T. (2007). Coral fish population changes in the surrounding artificial reefs of the Lebah coastal waters, Karangasem, Bali. Ind. Fish. Res. J. 13(2), 101 - 116.

Syam, A.R., Hartati, S.T., & Krismono. (2007, in Indonesian). Biofouling community development in artificial reef in Genteng Island and Rakit Island, Saleh Bay, West Nusa Tenggara. J. Lit. Perikan. Ind. 13(2), 157 – 166.

Wasilun, Karsono, & Suprapto. (1991). Study on coral rehabilitation techniques. The project report. Central Research Institute for Indonesian Fisheries. Jakarta.

Wilkinson, C. & Hodgson, G. (1999). Coral reefs and the 1997 - 1998 mass bleaching and mortality. Nature & Resources. 35 (2), 16 – 25.

Wouthuyzen, S., Abrar, M., & Lorwens, J. (2017). A comparison between the 2010 and 2016 El-Ninō induced coral bleaching in the Indonesian waters. Global Colloquium on GeoSciences and Engineering. IOP Publishing IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 118 (2018) 012051 doi :10.1088/1755-1315/118/1/012051

Yanuar, A., & Ainurohim. (2015, in Indonesian). Coral reef fish community in three different model of artificial reef installed in Pasir Putih waters Situbondo, east Java. Jurnal Sains and Seni, 4(1), 19 – 24.