FAKTOR PENENTU ADOPSI STANDAR ORGANIK DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP KINERJA BUDIDAYA UDANG WINDU

Maharani Yulisti, Tenny Apriliani, Risna Yusuf, Rismutia Hayu Deswati

Abstract


Standar keamanan pangan di Indonesia telah diusulkan untuk menghadapi tantangan pasar ikan global seperti peningkatan produksi budidaya dan perjanjian perdagangan bebas. Namun, manfaat sertifikasi keamanan pangan bagi pembudidaya ikan sering diperdebatkan. Dampaknya sangat kontekstual, yang sebenarnya sangat relevan dengan sektor perikanan skala kecil yang memiliki tingkat keragaman agro ekologi dan kondisi sosial ekonomi. Ini tidak selalu dipertimbangkan dalam penelitian sebelumnya. Oleh karena itu, kajian ini menganalisis dampak adopsi organic standard terhadap produktivitas petambak udang dengan mengambil studi kasus di Kabupaten Sidoarjo. Analisis yang digunakan untuk mengetahui faktor penentu adopsi menggunakan model probit; sedangkan untuk mengukur dampak terhadap outcome budidaya udang digunakan model endogenous switching regression. Hasil analisis probit menunjukkan bahwa standar organik tampaknya lebih banyak diterapkan pada pembudidaya yang memiliki pekerjaan di luar tambak udang dan lebih banyak memiliki pengalaman, tetapi kurang diadopsi oleh petani yang menyewa tambak, memiliki hubungan pasar dan hubungan kredit dengan pembeli mereka. Hasil analisis dampak menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata dari hasil budidaya udang tidak ditemukan perbedaan yang signifikan antara petambak yang mengadopsi standar dan yang tidak mengadopsi, sedangkan terdapat perbedaan signifikan dalam keuntungan bersih antara dua rezim. Namun, hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa adopter memiliki hasil lebih besar pada produksi udang jika mereka tidak mengadopsi, begitu pula sebaliknya terhadap nonadopter menghasilkan produksi udang lebih kecil apabila mereka mengadopsi standard. Di sisi lain, adopter memiliki profit lebih kecil pada produksi udang jika mereka tidak mengadopsi, begitu pula sebaliknya terhadap non-adopter menghasilkan profit lebih kecil apabila mereka tidak mengadopsi standard. 

Determinants for Adopting Organic Standard and Their Impact on Performance of Black Tiger Shrimp Farming

Food safety standard  in Indonesia has been proposed to face global fish market challenges such as increasing aquaculture production and free trade agreements. Yet, the benefits of food safety certification for farmers has often been debated. It has context-specific impact and closely relevant to small farm sector with its large degree of agroecological and socio-economic heterogenity. This idea was not always get into consideration in previous researches. Therefore, this paper analyzes the impact of organic standard adoption on productivity of small-scale shrimp farming in Indonesia. The study used  a probit model to determine the determinants of adoption, while endogenous switching regression model was used to measure the impact on the outcome of shrimp farming. Heterogeneity is accounted for an endogenous switching regression framework. The analytical result of probit showed that organic standard is more applied to farmers who have off-farm job and experiences, but is less adopted by farmers who rent ponds, have market and credit relationship with their buyers. The result of impact analysis showed that there were no significant differences on shrimp production between those adopted the standard and those who did not, the average yield of shrimp farming was not found to be a significant   between farmers who adopted and those who did not adopt the standard, while there were significant differences on net profit between the two regimes. However, the analysis found that adopters had higher results on shrimp production if they do not adopt standard, and nonadopters had less shrimp production if they adopt the standard. On the other hand, adopters have smaller profit on shrimp production if they do not adopt the standard, and non-adopters made smaller profits if they do not adopt the standard. 


Keywords


adopsi dan dampak; standar organik; udang windu; endogenous switching regression

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jsekp.v14i1.7700

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Diterbitkan Oleh:

Balai Besar Riset Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan
bekerjasama dengan
Indonesian Marine and Fisheries Socio-Economics Research Network