RANTAI PASOK DAN LOGISTIK UDANG VANAME DI DAERAH PRODUKSI DI INDONESIA

Achmad Zamroni, Risna Yusuf, Tenny Apriliani

Abstract


Rantai pasok udang vanamei di daerah produksi di Indonesia tidak selalu sama dan dipengaruhi oleh ketersediaan fasilitas pembenihan sampai dengan unit pengolahan ikan (UPI). Konsekuensinya, jenis dan jumlah biaya logistik bervariasi antara daerah satu dengan yang lain. Riset ini bertujuan untuk; a) mengidentifikasi rantai pasok udang vanamei di daerah produksi, b) menganalisis permasalahan dalam rantai pasok udang vanamei, dan c) merumuskan sistem logistik udang vanamei. Riset dilakukan selama tahun 2019 di beberapa provinsi yang memproduksi udang vanamei yaitu Jawa Timur, Jawa Barat, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat, dan Sulawesi Selatan. Riset ini menggunakan data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan menggunakan topik data kepada 12 responden pembenihan, 4 responden UPI, 40 responden pembudidaya udang vanamei, dan 10 pedagang/pengumpul. Data sekunder diperoleh dari laporan hasil riset, data statistik, dan publikasi ilmiah lainnya. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif untuk menggambarkan rantai pasok, pola logistik, dan permasalahan yang terjadi dalam rantai pasok. Hasil analisis menggambarkan bahwa rantai pasok udang vanamei di Indonesia bisa digolongkan menjadi 3 bagian, yaitu pasokan (bahan baku dan produksi), distribusi (pedagang besar, pedagang kecil, dan pengecer), dan konsumen (pasar lokal, hotel/ restoran/catering -HOREKA- dan UPI). Permasalahan rantai pasok udang vanamei dari produsen benih sampai ke konsumen akhir telah menyebabkan produksi tidak efisien dan berimplikasi pada peningkatan biaya. Secara faktual, ada disparitas stok benih antar daerah dan kebutuhan pemenuhan stok udang di beberapa cold storage. Logistik udang vanamei menggunakan hampir semua jenis moda transportasi yaitu transportasi udara (pesawat terbang), transportasi darat (sepeda motor, mobil bak terbuka, truk biasa, truk kontainer) dan transportasi laut (kapal antar pulau dan antar negara). Sistem logistik udang belum efisien mengingat pengadaan induk udang vanamei masih diimpor dari negara lain oleh beberapa perusahaan pembenihan, dan benih ini harus menyuplai seluruh wilayah Indonesia.

Title: Supply Chain and Logistic of Vannamei Shrimp In Production Areas of Indonesia

The supply chain of vannamei shrimp in production areas of Indonesia is different in each area. It depends on the availability of hatchery facilities and the fish processing unit (UPI). Consequently, the types and logistic costs vary among regions. This research aims to: a) identify the supply chain of vannamei shrimp in the production area, b) formulate a general pattern of the logistic system of vannamei shrimp, and c) analyze the problems in the supply chain of vannamei shrimp. This research was conducted in 2019 in East Java, West Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara, and South Sulawesi where those provinces produce vannamei shrimp. This research employs primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through interviews with five hatchery respondents, four UPI respondents, 40 vannamei shrimp farmers, and seven collectors/traders. Secondary data were obtained from research reports, statistical data, and other scientific publications. Data were analyzed descriptively to describe the supply chain, logistic patterns, and problems that occur in the supply chain. The results illustrate that vannamei supply chain in Indonesia can be classified into three parts: raw materials and production, distribution (wholesalers, small traders, and retailers) and consumers (local markets, hotel/restaurant/catering, and processing plants). The problem of vannamei supply chain from hatcheries to the final consumers has resulted in inefficient production and has been implicated in increased costs. Eventually, there are disparities in shrimp juvenile stocks between regions and the need to fulfill shrimp stocks in several cold storages Logistic system of vannamei shrimp utilizes almost all types of transportation modes: air transport (cargo planes), land transportation (motorbikes, trucks, cargo trucks) and water transportation (inter-island and inter-country cargo ships). The logistics system of vannamei was inefficient considering the procurement of vannamei shrimp broodstocks have always been imported from other countries by several hatchery companies, and shrimp juveniles produced need to be distributed to all-around Indonesia.


Keywords


budi daya; rantai pasok; sistem logistik, udang

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jsekp.v16i2.9495

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in collaboration with
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