STRUKTUR UKURAN DAN PARAMETER POPULASI IKAN LEMADANG (Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 ) DI LAUT SULAWESI

Umi Chodrijah, duto nugroho

Abstract


Ikan lemadang (Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus 1758.) dalam perdagangan internasional dikenal dengan nama mahi-mahi atau dolphinfish termasuk dalam family Coryphaenidae. Sebagai ikan pelagis, oseanik, bermigrasi jauh serta tersebar di perairan tropis dan subtropis di seluruh dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji struktur ukuran dan parameter populasi ikan lemadang di Luat Sulawesi. Pengumpulan data dilakukan di Pelabuhan Perikanan Samudera Bitung, Sulawesi Utara, pada Februari-Desember 2012. Data perikanan dianalisis dari rekaman data pendaratan tahunan di Pelabuhan Perikanan Bitung pada kurun waktu 2004–2014. Analisis parameter laju pertumbuhan menggunakan pendekatan pergeseran modus, sedangkan perkiraan tingkat pemanfaatan dilakukan dengan menggunakan program FISAT II. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebaran panjang cagak ikan lemadang (Coryphaena hippurus) dari sampel 4160 ekor ikan tercatat panjang minimum 30 cm FL, panjang maksimum 121 cmFL dan panjang-rata-rata 59,8 + 1,39 cm, dengan berat rata-rata sebesar 2,1 + 1,52 kg. Pola pertumbuhan bersifat isometrik dengan persamaan hubungan panjang-berat W=0,000003L3,2203 (r2=0,93). Pendugaan parameter populasi ikan lemadang di Laut Sulawesi diperoleh panjang asimtotik (L∞) = 154 cmFL, kecepatan pertumbuhan (K) = 0,75 per tahun dan umur pada saat ditetaskan (t0)= 0,25 tahun. Mortalitas total (Z) adalah 4,37 per tahun dengan mortalitas alami (M) dan mortalitas penangkapan (F) masing-masing 0,97/tahun dan 3,40/tahun. Tingkat eksploitasi (E) ikan lemadang diperkirakan sebesar 1,28. Hal ini berarti tingkat pemanfaatan ikan lemadang di Laut Sulawesi berada pada status telah tereksploitasi tinggi.

 

Mahi-mahi or dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) are oceanic, highly migratory, and geographically exist in tropical and subtropical waters. This research aims to examine size structures and population parameter of mahi-mahi of the Celebes Sea. This research conducted in the Bitung fishing port during February to December 2012. The fisheries data from 2004 to 2014 periods used to examine the annual trend of catch landing. Growth parameters were analyzed based on length based by using modal progression analyses. The exploitation level measured by using FISAT II software. The results showed that the length distribution of fish during sampling periods ranged of 30 cmFL to 121 cmFL. The average length was 59.8 + 1.39 cm, with average weight of 2.1 + 1.52 kg. Length and weight relationship followed equation of W = 0.000003 L3, 2203 (r2 = 0.9335). Population parameters included asymptotic length growth rate (L∞) was 154 cmFL, growth rate (K) = 0.75per year and zero age (t0) was 0.25 years. The total mortality index (Z) was 4.37 per year, natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F) were 0.97 per year and 3.40 per year, respectively. The estimated exploitation rate (E) was 1.28 per year, this indicate that the status of mahi-mahi in the area of sampling were at moderate level.


Keywords


Struktur ukuran; pertumbuhan; ikan lemadang; Laut Sulawesi

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anonimous. (1982). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. 2002 p. www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf; diunduh 28 Juni 2016.

Ariawan. (2015). Analisis hasil tangkapan pancing ulur (hand line) pada rumpon portable di perairan selatan Palabuhanratu (p. 27), Jawa Barat. Skripsi. FPIK - IPB.

BPPL. (2012). Laporan akhir. Penelitian distribusi dan kelimpahan sumberdaya ikan pelagis besar di WPP-716 Laut Sulawesi dan WPP-712 Laut Jawa. Pusat Penelitian Pengelolaan Perikanan dan Konservasi Sumberdaya Ikan. Badan Litbang Kelautan dan Perikanan.

Collette, B.B. (1999). Coryphaenidae, Dolphinfishes (“dolphins”), In FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes (p. 2656-2658). The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes Part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). Carpenter, K. E., Niem, V. H. (eds), FAO, Rome, Italy.

Collette, B., Acero, A., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Ramirez, C.C. Cardenas, G., ……………... Yanez, E. (2011). Coryphaena hippurus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T154712A4614989. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/ IUCN.UK.2011-2. RLTS.T154712A4614989.en. Downloaded on 28 June 2016.

De Metrio, G., Cacucci, M., Sion, L., Potoschi, A., Cannavó, G., Romeo, T.………Kapiris, C. (1997). Contract CEE Nº 94/079. Catches of juvenile bluefin tuna and swordfish during the albacore long-line fishery in the Mediterranean. Final Report. 1-45.

Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan Tangkap (DJPT). (2015). Statistik perikanan tangkap menurut provinsi (p. 356). Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan.

Farrell, E.R., Boustany, A.M., Halpinb P.N., Hammond, D.L. (2014). Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) distribution in relation to biophysical ocean conditions in the northwest Atlantic. Fisheries Research. 151, 177–190.

Fernández, M.S., Márquez, J.A.M., Cabello, M.G. & Barr, E.E. (2015). Age and growth of the Dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus in the coast of Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía. 50(3), 491-505, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-19572015000400008

Froese R. (2006). Cube law, condition factor and weight–length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22, 241–253.

Gatt, M., Dimech, M. & Schembril, P.J. (2015). Age, Growth and Reproduction of Coryphaena hippurus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Maltese Waters, Central Mediterranean. Medit. Mar. Sci., 16(2), 334-345.

Gayanilo, F.C.Jr., Sparre, P. & Pauly, D. (2005). FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools II (FiSAT II) (p. 168). Revised version. User's guide. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 8, Revised version. Rome, FAO. 2005.

Gulland, J.A. (1983). Fish stock assessment (p. 233). A manual of Basic Methods. John Wiley & Sons. Chicester.

King, M. (1995). Fisheries biology: Assessment and management (p. 341). Fishing News Books.

Massuti, E., & Morales-Nin, B. (1997). Reproductive biology of dolphin-fish (Coryphaena hippurus L.) off the island of Majorca (western Mediterranean). Fisheries Research, 30, 57-65.

Macías, D., Báez, J. C., Barcelona, S.G., & de Urbina, J.M.O. (2012). Length-weight relationship of dolphinfish by-caught In large pelagic longline fisheries Of the spanish Mediterranean. Collect. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT. 68(3), 1261-1264.

Macías, D., & de la Serna, J.M. (2000). By-catch composition in the Spanish Mediterranean longline gears. Abstract book of “Forth European Elasmobranch Association Meeting” Livorno, 27-30 September.

Manjusha, S. Kurup, B.M., Rajisha, R., Diana, B., Saravannane, N., Veloorkirakathi & Sanjeevan, N. (2012). Studies on population characteristics of Coryphaena hippurus, (L) (Pisces: Perciformes) from Indian waters. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online), 2(3), 72-82.

Murray, P.A. (1985). Growth and mortality in the dolphin-fish Coryphaena hippurus caught off Saint Lucia, W.I. In WECAFC (ed) (p. 147-153). National reports and selected papers presented at the fourth session of the Working Party on assessment of marine fishery resources.

Nash, R.D.M., Valencia, A.H., & Geffen A.J. (2006). The Origin of Fulton’s Condition Factor. Setting the Record Straight. Fisheries. 31(5), 236-238.

Nugraha, B. & Rahmat, E. (2008). Status perikanan huhate (Pole and Line) di Bitung. Sulawesi Utara. J. Lit. Perik. Ind. 14(3), 311-318.

Oxenford, H.A. (1985). Biology of the dolphin Coryphaena hippurus and its implications for the Barbadian fishery (p. 366). Ph.D. Thesis. University of the West Indies. Cave Hill. Barbados.

Oxenford, H.A. (1998). Biology of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) in the western central Atlantic: a review. Scientia Marina. 63(3-4), 277-301.

Pauly, D. (1980). On the interrelationship between natural mortality, grwoth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J. Com. CIEM. 39(2), 175-192.

Pauly, D. (1983). Some simple methods for the 1983 assessment of tropical fish stocks. FAO Fish.Tech.Pap., (234), 52.

Pauly, D., Ingles, J., & Neal. R. (1984). Application to shrimp stocks of objective methods for the estimation of growth, morlality, and recruitment related parameters from lemgth frequency data (ELEFAN I and II) (p. 220-234). In Penaeid Shrimp-Their Biology & Management. Fishing News Book Limited. Farnham-Surrey-England.

Perez, R.N., Roman, A.M., & Riovera, G.A. (1992). Investigation of the reproductive dynamic and preliminary evaluation of landings data of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, L. Final Report for Dingell-Johnson Project F26-1. Puerto Rico. Department of Natural Resources Fishery Research Laboratory Mayaguez. p. 95.

Potoschi, A. Reñones, O., & Cannizzaro, L. (1999). Sexual development, maturity and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) in the western and central Mediterranean. Sci. Mar., 63 (3-4), 367-372.

Smallwood, C. B., Hesp, S.A., & Beckley, L.E. (2013). Biology, stock status and management summaries for selected fish species in south-western Australia (p. 180). Fisheries Research Report No. 242. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.

Sparre, P. & Venema, S.C. (1998). Introduksi pengkajian ikan tropis (p. 438). Buku 1: Manual. Terjemahan. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan. Jakarta.

Suman, A., & M. Boer. (2005). Ukuran pertama kali matang kelamin, musim pemijahan, dan parameter pertumbuhan udang dogol (Metapenaeus ensis de Haan) di perairan Cilacap dan sekitarnya. J. Lit. Perik. Ind. 11(2), 69-74.

Schwenke, K.L., &. Buckel, J.A. (2007). Age, growth, and reproduction of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) caught off the coast of North Carolina. Fish. Bull. 106:82–92.

Triharyuni, S., & Prisantoso, B.I. (2012). Komposisi jenis dan sebaran ukuran tuna hasil tangkapan longline diperairan Samudera Hindia selatan Jawa. Jurnal Saintek Perikanan. 8(1), 52-58.

Uchiyama, J.H., & Boggs, C.H. (2006). Length-weight Relationships of Dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, and Wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri: Seasonal Effects of Spawning and Possible Migration in the Central North Pacific. Mar. Fish. Rev. 68, 19-29.

UNEP. (2005). Vantier, L., Wilkinson, C., Lawrence, D., and D. Souter (eds.) Indonesian Seas, GIWA Regional assessment 57 (p. 160). University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden.

Weatherley, A.H. (1976). Factors Affecting Maximization of Fish Growth. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 33(4), 1046-1058.

Williams, P. (2014). Scientific Data Available To The Western And Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. Technical And Compliance Committee Tenth Regular Session 25 - 30 September 2014. Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. www.wcpfc.int. 28 Juni 2016. 42 hal.





Creative Commons License
Bawal Widya Riset Perikanan Tangkap is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
View My Stats
E-ISSN 2502-6410