STATUS PEMANFAATAN DAN UPAYA PELESTARIAN IKAN ENDEMIK AIR TAWAR DI PULAU SUMATERA

Eko Prianto, Reni Puspasari, Dian Oktaviani, Aisyah Aisyah

Abstract


Ikan endemik Pulau Sumatera tersebar di beberapa wilayah dengan tipe habitat yang berbeda-beda. Saat ini beberapa jenis ikan endemik terancam punah akibat degradasi lingkungan, hilang atau berubahnya habitat dan eksploitasi yang berlebihan. Tujuan penulisan untuk mengetahui status sumberdaya ikan endemik Pulau Sumatera dan upaya pelestariannya. Metodologi pengumpulan data dan informasi dilakukan dengan studi literatur yang dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil sintesis menunjukkan, jumlah jenis ikan endemik di Pulau Sumatera mengalami peningkatan disebabkan adanya penemuan jenis ikan baru selama 20 tahun terakhir. Komposisi jenis ikan endemik Sumatera sebanyak 66 jenis yang terdiri dari 13 famili dan didominasi oleh famili Cyprinidae sebanyak 21 jenis dan famili Osphronemidae sebanyak 16 jenis. Status pemanfaatan ikan endemik Pulau Sumatera terdiri dari genting (critically endangered) sebanyak 5 jenis, rawan (vulnerable) sebanyak 7 jenis, bahaya (endangered) sebanyak 1 jenis, kurang data (data deficient) sebanyak 1 jenis dan belum dievaluasi (not evaluated) sebanyak 52 jenis. Untuk menjaga kelestarian sumberdaya ikan endemik di Pulau Sumatera diperlukan pelestarian secara in-situ dan ex-situ. Upaya pelestarian secara in-situ diantaranya melalui: a) suaka perikanan, b) rehabilitasi lingkungan dan modifikasi habitat, c) pengendalian ikan introduksi, d) menyusun regulasi penangkapan ikan sedangkan ex-situ yaitu melalui domestikasi. Sebagai rekomendasi kedepannya perlu upaya perlindungan melalui: i) penyusunan regulasi tentang perlindungan habitat ikan endemik dan upaya konservasi jenis ikan: dan ii) pengembangan hatchery untuk domestikasi dan re-stocking.

Freshwater endemic fish of Sumatra island are distributed and inhabitedt in various habitat. The sustainability of this fish are under threat due to environmental degradation, habitat modification and loss, also over exploitation. Desk study in order to understand the conservation state and effort of this freshwater endemic fishes in Sumatra Island was conducted by collecting secondary data and literature review then analyzed descriptively. There is an increment number of freshwater endemic fish with several new species are recorded during the last two decades. The endemic fishes recorded in Sumatera Island are 66 species from 13 different families. Cyprinidae is the most dominant family consisting of 21 species followed by Osphronemidae consisting of 16 species. The conservation state of this freshwater endemic fish is divided into five categories; critically endangered (5 species), vulnerable (7 species), endangered (1 species), data deficient (1 species) and not yet evaluated (52 species). To date, the conservation management of endemic fishes in Indonesia, specially in Sumatra Island is still limited. Therefore, management effort, such as in-situ and ex-situ conservation should be proposed in the near future. In-situ fish conservation are: a) fish sanctuary or conservation, b) environmental rehabilitation and habitat modification, c) introduction of fish controlling, d) arrangement of fishing regulation. Ex-situ fish conservation can be carried out through domestication program. it is also recommendated that the preservation of the are endemic fishes can be done through: i) arrangement of endemic fishes habitat regulation and conservation and ii) support for hatchery development, domestication and re-stocking programs.


Keywords


Status; ikan endemik; Pulau Sumatera

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jkpi.8.2.2016.101-110


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