EVALUASI TIGA HIBRIDA IKAN MAS SEBAGAI KANDIDAT VARIETAS BUDIDAYA UNGGUL

Didik Ariyanto, Suharyanto Suharyanto, Flandrianto S. Palimirmo, Yogi Himawan

Abstract


Dalam rangka memperbaiki kualitas benih ikan mas, telah dilakukan kegiatan persilangan (hibridisasi) dua arah antar lima strain ikan mas, yaitu Majalaya (Mj), Rajadanu (Rj), Sutisna (St), Wildan (Wd) dan Sinyonya (Sy). Dari 25 populasi hasil persilangan, tiga kombinasi persilangan, yaitu St f >< Rj m (St x RJ), Mj f >< St m (Mj x St) dan St f >< Sy m (St x Sy) mempunyai nilai heterosis tertinggi pada karakter panjang dan bobot. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi keragaan ketiga populasi hibrida tersebut untuk menentukan ikan mas hibrida terbaik sebagai kandidat strain unggul baru. Evaluasi keragaan populasi ikan mas hibrida dilakukan melalui dua pendekatan, yaitu karakter fenotipik menggunakan uji pertumbuhan dan komposisi warna tubuh serta karakter genotipik menggunakan metode mikrosatelit. Hasil analisis fenotipik menunjukkan bahwa populasi hibrida St x Sy mempunyai laju pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot sebesar 1,03±0,06 %/hari dan 3,03±0,24 %/hari, berbeda nyata dengan populasi hibrida St x Rj sebesar 0,92±0,04 %/hari dan 2,65±0,06 %/hari. Keragaan populasi hibrida St x Sy tersebut tidak berbeda nyata dengan populasi hibrida Mj x St yang mempunyai laju pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot sebesar 0,98±0,03 %/hari dan 2,78±0,08 %/hari. Namun demikian, berdasarkan analisis komposisi warna populasi hibrida Mj x St mempunyai warna tubuh yang seragam sehingga lebih diterima oleh konsumen. Hasil analisis genotipik menunjukkan bahwa ketiga populasi hibrida mempunyai kulitas genetik tidak berbeda nyata. Kualitas genetik yang diindikasikan dengan nilai heterozigositas, polimorfisme dan indeks fiksasi ketiga populasi hibrida, masing-masing berkisar antara 0,21 – 0,22; 0,86 – 0,88 dan 0,75 – 0,8.

In order to improve the quality of common carp, hybridization program was carried out through diallel crosses between five common carp strains, namely Majalaya (Mj), Rajadanu (Rj), Sutisna (St), Wildan (Wd) and Sinyonya (Sy). Of the 25 populations obtained from the crosses, the hybrid of St f >< Rj m (St x RJ), f >< St m (Mj x St) and St f >< Sy m (St x Sy) had the highest heterosis of the body length and weight. This study aims to evaluate the performance of these three hybrid populations to determine the best population as a candidate for a new superior strain for common carp culture. Evaluation of the hybrid population was carried out through two approaches. The first is phenotypic characters using growth rate and body color composition tests and the second is genotypic characters using microsatellite methods. The result of the phenotypic analysis showed that the St x Sy population had a growth rate of length and weight of 1.03±0.06%/day and 3.03±0.24%/day, significantly different from that of the St x Rj population of 0.92±0.04%/day and 2.65±0.06%/day. The performance of the St x Sy population was not significantly different from the Mj x St population which had a growth rate of length and weight of 0.98±0.03%/day and 2.78±0.08%/day. However, based on the body color composition, population of Mj x St has a uniform color so that it is more acceptable to both of farmers and consumers. Genotypic analysis result showed that the three hybrid populations had no significantly different in genetic quality. The genetic quality indicated by the heterozygosity, polymorphism and fixation index of the three hybrid populations ranged from 0.21 to 0.22; 0.86 – 0.88 and 0.75 – 0.8.


Keywords


ikan mas; strain unggul; hibrida; skrining; common carp; great strain; hybrid; screening

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.17.1.2022.1-7


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