APLIKASI DOSIS FERMENTASI PROBIOTIK BERBEDA PADA BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei) POLA INTENSIF

Gunarto Gunarto, Abdul Mansyur, Muliani Muliani

Abstract


Aplikasi dosis probiotik yang tepat menjadi satu di antara penentu utama dalam peningkatan produksi udang di tambak, karena berkaitan dengan kemampuannya mengurai limbah organik sisa pakan dan sisa metabolisme udang yang dibudidayakan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan dosis fermentasi probiotik yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan, sintasan, produksi udang, nilai rasio konversi pakan, dan kualitas air tambak budidaya intensif udang vaname di tambak. Enam unit tambak masing-masing ukuran 4.000 m2 ditebari benur vaname PL-10 dengan padat tebar 50 ekor/m2. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 2,5%-100% dari total biomassa udang dengan frekuensi 2–4 kali/hari selama pemeliharaan 105 hari. Tiga dosis berbeda dari aplikasi fermentasi probiotik komersial dijadikan perlakuan, yaitu A). 1 mg/L/minggu, B). 3 mg/L/minggu, dan C). 5 mg/L/minggu. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Aplikasi fermentasi probiotik di tambak dilakukan setiap minggu sekali dan dimulai seminggu sebelum tebar hingga mendekati waktu panen. Sampling pertumbuhan dan kualitas air (amoniak, nitrit, nitrat, fosfat, bahan organik total (BOT), klorofil-a, total bakteri Vibrio sp. dan total bakteri) dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali. Pengamatan fluktuasi oksigen terlarut di air tambak selama 24 jam dilakukan pada hari ke-43, 60, dan 90. Sintasan, produksi, dan nilai konversi pakan dihitung setelah udang dipanen. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari perlakuan, maka data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan analisis varian pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT apabila terjadi perbedaan yang nyata. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian nampak bahwa dosis 5 mg/L fermentasi probiotik, mampu menghasilkan sintasan yang lebih baik dan juga efisien dalam pemanfaatan pakan, yang ditunjukkan dengan nilai Rasio Konversi Pakan lebih rendah apabila dibandingkan dengan nilai Rasio Konversi Pakan yang diperoleh pada dosis fermentasi probiotik 3 dan 1 mg/L, meskipun demikian ketiganya menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata (P>0,05). Konsentrasi oksigen terlarut pada bulan ke tiga pada perlakuan B lebih rendah dan berbeda nyata (P<0,1) dengan konsentrasi oksigen terlarut di perlakuan A dan C. Hal tersebut kemungkinan yang menyebabkan sintasan dan produksi udang di perlakuan B lebih rendah dari pada di perlakuan A dan C.

The right dosage of probiotic application is one of the main important aspects to increase production in shrimp pond culture. It relates to its capability to decompose  organic waste from excessive feed and metabolic products of shrimp. The objective of the research was to know the effect of various dosages of probiotic fermentation on the growth rate, survival rate, production, and feed convertion ratio of Litopenaeus vannamei and on pond water quality. Six units of pond compartment, each sized of 4,000 m2  were stocked with D-10 of vannamei post larvae at a density of 50 ind./m2. Commercial pellet was given from 2.5% to 100% of total body weight, 2 to 4 times a day during 105 days of culture. Three dosages of commercial probiotic fermentation were tested as treatments, they were A). 1 mg/L/week, B). 3 mg/L/week and C). 5 mg/L/week. Each treatment contained two replications and probiotic was applied weekly in shrimp pond started one week before shrimp stocking and continued up to harvest time. Shrimp growth, water quality (amonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, total organic matter (TOM), chlorophyll-a, total Vibrio sp., and total bacteria,) were monitored once in two weeks. 24 hours of monitoring of dissolved oxygen fluctuation in the pond water was conducted at day 43, 60, and 90. Shrimp survival rate, production and feed convertion ratio were monitored  after shrimp were harvested. Varian analysis followed by LSD test were used to analyze the data obtained from this research to know the differences among those treatments. Result of the research showed that 5 mg/L of probiotic weekly application in pond was able to increase shrimp survival rate and feed consumpsion efficiency which was reflected by a lower Feed Corvertion Ratio values. However, it was not significantly different (P>0.05) with the other treatments, 1 and 3 mg/L/week. Dissolved oxygen in treatment B on the third month was significantly lower (P<0.1) than those of in treatment A and C. Presummably this factor was causing lower shrimp survival rate and production in treatment B compared to treatment A and C.


Keywords


probiotik; produksi; budidaya intensif; Litopenaeus vannamei

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.4.2.2009.241-255


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