ANALISIS DAYA DUKUNG LAHAN TAMBAK BERDASARKAN PADA KUANTITAS AIR PERAIRAN DI SEKITAR KECAMATAN BALUSU KABUPATEN BARRU PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN

Akhmad Mustafa, Tarunamulia Tarunamulia

Abstract


Daya dukung lahan termasuk lahan budidaya tambak merupakan salah satu konsep dasar yang perlu diketahui lebih awal agar dapat dilakukan pengelolaan sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan secara berkelanjutan. Oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui daya dukung kawasan pertambakan di sekitar Kecamatan Balusu, Kabupaten Barru, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan yang didasarkan pada kapasitas alaminya untuk menampung limbah agar produktivitas tambak dapat meningkat dan berkelanjutan. Metoda penelitian yang diaplikasikan adalah metoda survei. Pengukuran langsung di lapangan dan pengambilan contoh air dilakukan di laut dan saluran tambak untuk dianalisis di Laboratorium Air Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Maros.  Data fisik lahan diperoleh dari hasil pengukuran di lapangan dan hasil ekstrak dari  citra beresolusi tinggi yaitu Quickbird akuisisi 28 Oktober 2006 dan 25 September 2007. Kuantitas air tersedia ditentukan dengan memanfaatkan fasilitas analisis 3-D dalam Sistem Informasi Geografis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas air perairan di sekitar Kecamatan Balusu yang akan menerima limbah budidaya tambak tergolong sesuai untuk budidaya tambak dan dapat berfungsi sebagai pengencer limbah budidaya tambak. Kuantitas air perairan tersedia sebagai penerima limbah di sekitar pertambakan Kecamatan Balusu sebesar 2.025.647,94 m3 yang dapat  mendukung usaha tambak yang berkelanjutan seluas 236,40 ha (43,11% dari luas total tambak 548,33 ha) jika dikelola dengan teknologi tradisional dengan produksi maksimal 141,84 ton/musim. Kawasan mangrove yang tersisa hanya seluas 38,97 ha dan masih dibutuhkan lagi minimal seluas 93,39 ha, sehingga program rehabilitasi mangrove menjadi sangat penting. 

Carrying capacity of brackishwater pond in a specific location or land is a very important aspect to consider in order to determine the sustainability of the use of natural resources and environmental management of land-based aquaculture development. Therefore, it was conducted a research with the purpose of  knowing the carrying capacity of brackishwater pond areas in Balusu Sub-district, Barru Regency, South Sulawesi Province based on their natural capacity to assimilate different environmental waste as the basic information to support the sustainability of pond production. Survey method was applied in this research. In situ measurement of water quality was conducted on the seashore and pond canal and more depth analysis was done at the Water Laboratory of The Research Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, Maros. Physical property of brackishwater land was analysed and interpreted from detailed field measurement and image classification output of Quickbird imagery with acquisition date of 28 October 2006 and 25 September 2007. The quantity of water available for the brackishwater aquaculture was determined by employing 3-D analysis extension in Geographic Information System. The result of research showed that the quality of waters in coastal areas of Balusu Sub-district is still able to accommodate or neutralize the waste from the existing brackishwater ponds and therefore it can still be classified as suitable for brackishwater pond. The quantity of water available in the sea to dilute waste from the existing brackishwater ponds in Balusu Sub-district was estimated about 2,025,647.94 m3 and is considered enough to support the sustainability of only 236.40 ha (43.11% of the total area of existing brackishwater ponds (548.33 ha). If farmers use a traditional or an extensive aquaculture method, this area can produce fish a maximum of 141,84 ton/season. Based on the environmental regulation this location must have a minimum of 93.39 ha of mangrove areas, however existing mangrove areas are only 38.97 ha, so that farmer awareness and political intervention are urgently needed to recover those areas.


Keywords


kuantitas air; daya dukung; tambak; Kabupaten Barru

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.4.3.2009.395-406


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