EVALUASI KESESUAIAN PERAIRAN UNTUK BUDIDAYA IKAN DALAM KERAMBA JARING APUNG DI KABUPATEN MALUKU TENGGARA BARAT PROVINSI MALUKU

Andi Akhmad Mustafa, Tarunamulia Tarunamulia, Hasnawi Hasnawi, I Nyoman Radiarta

Abstract


Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat (MTB) memiliki potensi untuk pengembangan budidaya ikan dalam keramba jaring apung (KJA), tetapi belum tersedia data karakteristik perairannya. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesesuaian dan daya dukung perairan berdasarkan karakteristik perairannya untuk budidaya ikan dalam KJA di kawasan pesisir Kabupaten MTB Provinsi Maluku, Indonesia. Data karakteristik perairan yang dikumpulkan berupa pasang surut, kecepatan dan arah arus, kedalaman, kecerahan, suhu, salinitas, oksigen terlarut, pH, nitrat, nitrit, nitrogen amonia total, fosfat, padatan tersuspensi total, dan bahan organik total air, serta jenis substrat dasar. Kesesuaian perairan ditentukan melalui analisis dengan weighted linear combination dalam sistem informasi geografis (SIG) dan luasan daya dukung perairan untuk budidaya ikan dalam KJA didasarkan pada referensi yang telah ada. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara umum karakteristik perairan Kecamatan Tanimbar Utara, Wuarlabobar, dan Selaru, Kabupaten MTB dapat mendukung kegiatan budidaya ikan dalam KJA, namun kedalaman perairan yang relatif dangkal yang menjadi faktor pembatas dalam kesesuaian perairan untuk kegiatan budidaya ikan dalam KJA. Dari 67.287,84 ha kawasan pesisir yang diteliti di Kabupaten MTB dijumpai yang tergolong sangat sesuai seluas 1.564,43 ha; cukup sesuai seluas 10,687,78 ha; kurang sesuai sesuai 2.103,92 ha; dan tidak sesuai seluas 52.931,71 ha untuk budidaya ikan dalam KJA. Di kawasan pesisir Kecamatan Tanimbar Utara, Wuarlabobar, dan Selaru dapat dilakukan budidaya ikan dalam KJA dengan daya dukung perairan masing-masing seluas 363, 292, dan 570 ha yang dapat digunakan untuk masing-masing 5.445; 4.380; dan 8.550 unit KJA ukuran 8 m x 8 m.

Maluku Tenggara Barat District has potential waters for the development of floating net cage mariculture. However, the characteristics and quality of the waters have not been well studied. This study was aimed to assess the suitability and carrying capacity of coastal waters of Maluku Tenggara Barat based on the requirements of net cage mariculture. The measured waters characteristics included tidal, current velocity (speed and direction), water depth, transparency, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, total suspended solids, and total organic matter as well as bottom substrate types. The weighted linear combination (WLC) method in geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine the level of waters suitability and carrying capacity to support floating net cage mariculture operation. The WLC criteria used were based on the existing standard environmental criteria. The results showed that the coastal waters of Tanimbar Utara, Wuarlabobar, and Selaru sub-districts were suitable for fish culture in floating net cage. Nevertheless, the relatively shallow water depth in the study area was identified as the primary limiting factor of suitability. Of the total of the coastal areas studied (67,287.84 ha), 1,564.43 ha; 10,687.78 ha; 2,103.92 ha; and 52,931.71 ha were respectively categorized as very suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable for fish culture in floating net cage. The carrying capacity of the coastal waters of Tanimbar Utara, Wuarlabobar and Selaru sub-districts were estimated able to support 5,445; 4,380; and 8,550 floating net cage units sized 8 m x 8 m distributed in total farm areas of 363, 292, and 570 ha, respectively.


Keywords


kesesuaian perairan; budidaya ikan; keramba jaring apung; Maluku Tenggara Barat; waters suitability; fish culture; floating net cage; Maluku Tenggara Barat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.13.3.2018.277-287


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