KANDUNGAN FITOKIMIA DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERIA EKSTRAK DAUN MANGROVE (Sonneratia alba) SECARA INVITRO TERHADAP Aeromonas hydrophila

Emmy Syafitri, Dwi Tika Afriani, Budiman Siregar, Yuda Gustiawan

Abstract


Pengendalian penyakit infeksi Aeromonas hydrophila pada ikan budidaya air tawar belum sepenuhnya tertangani dengan baik. Upaya alternatif untuk mencegah penyakit infeksi A. hydrophila, maka dicoba menggunakan bahan alami berupa daun Sonneratia alba yang merupakan tumbuhan mangrove. Tumbuhan tersebut disinyalir mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri patogen baik gram negative maupun gram positif. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui senyawa kimia dan menguji daya hambat daun S. alba terhadap pertumbuhan A. hydrophila. Penapisan senyawa kimia diuji dengan metode kualitatif dan uji daya hambat bakteri ditentukan dengan metode difusi cakram. Analisis hasil penapisan fitokimia kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstra ketanol daun S. alba mengandung tanin, steroid, alkaloid, flavonoid dan saponin. Aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan terhadap diameter zona hambat yang terbentuk di sekitar kertas cakram. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun S. alba memiliki potensi dalam menghambat pertumbuhan A. hydrophila dengan zona hambat terbesar yaitu 15,67 mm pada konsentrasi 10.000 mg/L

Aeromonas hydrophila infections in freshwater aquaculture have not been fully controlled. Several alternatives are available and could be used to prevent A. hydrophila infection, one of which is using the natural ingredients in the leaves of Sonneratia alba, a tropical mangrove plant. The chemical compounds in plant’s leaves were suspected to be capable of inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria both gram-negative and gram-positive. The purpose of this study was to determine these chemical compounds and test their inhibitory capabilities on the growth of A. hydrophila. Screening of chemical compounds was done using qualitative methods, and bacterial inhibitory tests were determined by the disk diffusion method. Results of the qualitative phytochemical screening showed that ethanol extract of S. Alba leaves contained tannins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. Antibacterial activity was carried out by measuring the inhibition zone diameter. The results showed that S. alba leaf extract had the potential to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila where the largest inhibitory zone was 15.67 mm at a concentration of 10,000 mg/L


Keywords


fitokimia; antibakteri; daun Sonneratia alba; Aeromonas hydrophila; phytochemicals; antibacterial; Sonneratia alba leaves; Aeromonas hydrophila

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.15.4.2020.253-259


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