POTENSI ANTI OKSIDAN DAN ANTI BAKTERI Chromolaena odorata TERHADAP Vibrio harveyi PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BLACK BODY SYNDROME PADA KAKAP PUTIH (Lates calcarifer)

Nurbariah Nurbariah, Sukenda Sukenda, Muhammad Zairin Junior, Sri Nuryati, Dinamella Wahjuningrum

Abstract


Kandungan bahan bioaktif pada tanaman memiliki beragam potensi aktivitas biologis dan dimanfaatkan dalam budidaya ikan sebagai alternatif untuk pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit ikan. Serapoh (Chromolaena odorata) diketahui memiliki bahan bioaktif namun penerapan untuk pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit pada kakap putih belum pernah diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi potensi antioksidan dan antibakteri daun serapoh secara in vitro terhadap Vibrio harveyi penyebab penyakit black body syndrome pada benih kakap putih. Penelitian secara in vitro melingkupi analisis fitokimia, uji antioksidan dan antibakteri. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun serapoh mengandung flavonoid, tannin, saponin, dan steroid. Rendemen dari hasil maserasi dengan pelarut akuades, etanol, etil asetat, dan n-heksan berturut-turut adalah 11,34%; 9,13%; 4,21%; dan 1,48%. Ekstrak etil asetat memiliki kandungan total fenol yang tertinggi (212,8 mg/g) dibanding ekstrak yang lain. Kandungan total flavonoid yang tertinggi terdapat pada ekstrak etanol (195,5 mg/g) diikuti dengan ekstrak etil asetat (20,2 mg/g), n-heksan (10,6 mg/g), dan akuades (8,1 mg/g). Nilai potensi antioksidan ekstrak etanol lebih tinggi (86,59%) dibanding ekstrak yang lain namun potensi antioksidan ekstrak etanol, etil asetat, dan akuades tidak berbeda nyata dengan asam askorbat sebagai pembanding. Ekstrak etanol, etil asetat, dan n-heksan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan V. harveyi. Ekstrak etanol bersifat bakteriostatik (1,25 mg/mL) dan bakterisidal (5 mg/mL), serta menyebabkan kerusakan sel sehingga metabolit seluler seperti asam nukleat dan protein dapat keluar dari sel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun serapoh memiliki potensi antioksidan dan antibakteri terhadap V. harveyi sehingga dapat digunakan untuk pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit black body syndrome pada benih kakap putih.

Bioactive compounds in plants have various potential biological activities and are commonly used in fish farming as alternatives to prevent and treat fish diseases. Serapoh (Chromolaena odorata) is known to have bioactive compounds, yet its application to prevent disease in Asian seabass has not been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of serapoh leaves in vitro against Vibrio harveyi, causing black body syndrome disease in Asian seabass. The performed tests in this study consisted of phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, and antibacterial tests. The results showed that serapoh leaf extract contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and steroids. The yields obtained from maceration with aquadest, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents were 11.34%; 9.13%; 4.21%; and 1.48%, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract had the highest total phenol content (212.8 mg/g) compared to the other extracts. Ethanol extract has the highest total flavonoid content (195.5 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (20.2 mg/g), n-hexane (10.6 mg/g), and aquadest (8.1 mg/g). The highest antioxidant potential value was shown by ethanol extract (85.59%), but the antioxidant potentials of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aquadest extracts were not significantly different from ascorbic acid. Ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts can inhibit the growth of V. harveyi. Ethanol extract has bacteriostatic (1.25 mg/mL) and bactericidal (5 mg/mL) properties. The exposure of V. harveyi to ethanol extract resulted in cellular damage that can release cellular metabolites such as nucleic acids and proteins. In conclusion, serapoh leaf extract had antioxidant and antibacterial potential against V. harveyi and could be used to prevent or treat black body syndrome in Asian seabass.


Keywords


antioksidan; antibakteri; Chromolaena odorata; black body syndrome; Vibrio harveyi; antioxidant; antibacterial; Chromolaena odorata; black body syndrome; Vibrio harveyi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jra.16.2.2021.117-124


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