Analisis Dampak Sampah Plastik di Laut terhadap Aktivitas Nelayan Skala Kecil di Jakarta

Andi Sagita, Muhammad Danny Sianggaputra, Christy Desta Pratama


Sampah plastik yang memenuhi pesisir dan laut telah menganggu aktivitas penangkapan ikan oleh nelayan skala kecil di Jakarta. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis dampak kerugian ekonomi akibat sampah plastik di laut terhadap aktivitas nelayan skala kecil di Jakarta. Objek penelitian ini adalah nelayan kecil yang didefinisikan dalam UU Nomor 7 Tahun 2016 sebagai nelayan yang menggunakkan kapal penangkapan ikan berukuran paling besar 10 gros ton (GT). Untuk itu, narasumber dibagi menjadi nelayan 0 GT, 3 GT, 5 GT, 7 GT, dan 10 GT. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang bersifat studi kasus sehingga pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan wawancara terstruktur menggunakan kuesioner, sedangkan analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua kategori nelayan skala kecil di Jakarta mengalami perubahan upaya penangkapan ikan akibat sampah plastik di laut. Nelayan 0 GT merupakan nelayan yang paling besar mengalami peningkatkan biaya operasional, yaitu sebesar 69,5% dari Rp154.500,00 menjadi Rp259.500,00 per trip sehingga menurunkan pendapatan hingga 38% dari Rp2.001.500,00 menjadi Rp1.297.611,00 per trip. Sementara itu, nelayan 10 GT merupakan kategori nelayan yang paling kecil dampak ekonominya akibat sampah plastik di laut dibandingkan dengan kategori nelayan lainnya, yaitu mengalami peningkatkan biaya operasional hanya sebesar 9,4% dari Rp5.384.000,00 menjadi Rp5.884.500,00 per trip dan secara signifikan menurunkan pendapatan sebesar 9,4%, yaitu dari Rp138.115.500,00 menjadi Rp125.843.619,00 per trip. Peningkatan biaya operasional pada nelayan skala kecil disebabkan oleh perubahan jarak dan waktu tempuh ke daerah penangkapan ikan akibat sampah plastik.


Tittle: Analysis of the Impact of Plastic Waste in the Sea on Small-Scale Fishermen Activities in Jakarta

Plastic waste that fills up and covers coastal and marine waters has disrupted the fishing activities of small-scale fishermen in Jakarta. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of economic losses on plastic waste on the activities of small-scale fishermen in Jakarta. The object of this research were small fishermen as defined in Law Number 7 of 2016 as fishermen who catch fish to fulfill their daily needs using fishing vessels with a maximum size of 10 gross tons (GT). For those reason, the informants were divided into 0 GT, 3 GT, 5 GT, 7 GT and 10 GT. This research is a qualitative type of case study where data collection is done by observation and structured interviews using a quaestionnaires, while data analysis is carried out in a qualitative descriptive manner. The results showed that all categories of small-scale fishermen in Jakarta have undergone changes in fishing activities due to the marine plastic waste. The fishermen of 0 GT are the group who experienced the largest increase in operational costs, which was 69.5%, from Rp154,500.00 to Rp259,500.00, per trip thus reducing their income by 38%, from Rp2,001,500.00 to Rp1,297,611.00 per trip. On the other hand, the fishermen of 10 GT are the group who have the least economic impact due to plastic waste compared to other categories. These fishermen only suffer the operational costs by only 9.4%, from Rp5,384,000.00 to Rp5,884,500.00 per trip, significantly reducing their income by 9.4%, that is from Rp138,115,500.00 to Rp125,843,619.00 per trip.  The increase in operational costs for small-scale fishermen is caused by changes in distance and travel time to fishing areas due to plastic waste.


dampak ekonomi; sampah plastik laut; nelayan skala kecil; Jakarta.

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