RANTAI PASOK DAN SISTEM LOGISTIK UDANG VANAME DI KABUPATEN PINRANG, PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN

Risna Yusuf, Lathifatul Rosyidah, Achmad Zamroni, Tenny Apriliani

Abstract


Udang vaname merupakan salah satu komoditas unggulan budi daya di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, khususnya di Kabupaten Pinrang. Secara umum, jenis udang yang dibudidayakan adalah
 udang windu, vaname, udang putih, dan lainnya tersebut, mengalami penurunan produksi dari tahun 2014 sampai tahun 2016 sebesar 4,7%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis rantai pasok  udang vaname, dan mengidentifikasi logistik udang vaname di Kabupaten Pinrang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem rantai pasok komoditas udang vaname di Kabupaten Pinrang memiliki tiga tipe rantai pasok, yaitu tipe 1: pembudi daya udang skala tradisional – pedagang kecil – pengecer – pasar; tipe 2: pembudi daya udang skala semi intensif – pedagang kecil – pedagang besar – Unit Pengolahan Ikan (UPI); tipe 3: pembudi daya intensif – pedagang besar– UPI. Ketiga rantai pasok tersebut memiliki nilai farmer share 80%, 94%, dan 90%, dan dikategorikan sebagai rantai pasok  yang efisien. Namun demikian, rantai pasok tipe 1 memiliki margin pemasaran terbesar dibanding rantai pasok lainnya. Pada sistem logistik komoditas, biaya distribusi udang vaname masih tinggi karena ketersediaan pasokan yang terbatas dan belum optimalnya sarana prasarana logistik seperti infrastruktur, alat transportasi yang menyebabkan tingginya biaya distribusi udang di Kabupaten  Pinrang. Oleh karena itu, penerapan manajemen sistem rantai pasok pada kegiatan produksi,  pemasaran, penanganan pascapanen, transportasi dilakukan secara integrasi, sehingga dapat menjamin kelancaran komoditas udang secara efektif dan efisien yang tercermin dari biaya logistik yang rendah, tepat waktu, dan kualitas udang yang bagus.

Title: Supply Chain and Logistic System of Vannamei Shrimp  in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi Province

Vannamei shrimp is one of main commodities in South Sulawesi Province, especially in Pinrang Regency. In general, the cultured species which are black tiger, vannamei, white shrimp, and other shrimps, have been decreased in production by 4.7% during 2014 to 2016. The research aimed to analyze the supply chain and logistic system of vannamei shrimp in Pinrang Regency. The research found there were 3 (three) types of vannamei supply chain in Pinrang; type 1: traditional shrimp farmer – middleman – retailer – traditional market; type 2: semi intensive shrimp farmer – small trader – supplier – fish processing unit (UPI); type 3: intensive shrimp farmer – supplier – fish processing unit (UPI). The farmer shares of each supply chain respectively were 80%, 94%, and 90%. These number indicated that the supply chains were efficient. However, type 1 had the biggest margin compared with the other types. On the other hand, the distribution cost of vannamei shrimp in Pinrang Regency were relatively high due to its limited supply, infrastructure and transportation. Therefore, there should be integrated management of supply chain in production, marketing, postharvest handling, and transportation to ensure the effectivity and efficiency of shrimp distribution. This improvement could be reflected in the low cost of logistic, precise delivery time, and good quality of the shrimp product.


Keywords


rantai pasok; sistem logistik; udang vaname; Kabupaten Pinrang; Sulawesi Selatan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/marina.v6i1.8494

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Diterbitkan Oleh:

Balai Besar Riset Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan dan Perikanan
bekerjasama dengan
Indonesian Marine and Fisheries Socio-Economics Research Network