PERBANDINGAN NILAI EKONOMI PEMANFAATAN EKSTRAKTIF DAN NONEKSTRAKTIF DARI HIU DAN PARI DI MEULABOH, TAKALAR, DAN TANJUNG LUAR

Syifa Annisa, Alin Halimatussadiah

Abstract


Sebagian besar pemanfaatan hiu dan pari di Indonesia masih bersifat ekstraktif, yaitu berupa penangkapan. Hal tersebut berakibat meningkatnya ancaman terhadap keberadaan hiu dan pari yang ditunjukkan oleh penurunan populasinya. Padahal, ada jenis pemanfaatan lain, yaitu berupa ekowisata hiu dan pari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan nilai ekonomi kegiatan ekowisata hiu dan pari dengan nilai ekonomi yang diberikan oleh kegiatan perikanannya di lokasi target penangkapan, yaitu di Meulaboh, Takalar, dan Tanjung Luar. Nilai ekonomi ekstraktif hiu dan pari didapatkan dari nilai pasar dengan data Surat Rekomendasi Perdagangan KKP, sedangkan nilai ekonomi nonekstraktif diberikan dalam bentuk use value melalui metode travel cost method (TCM) dan non-use value menggunakan contingent valuation method (CVM). Data untuk perhitungan nilai ekonomi nonekstraktif hiu dan pari dikumpulkan dengan metode in depth interview terhadap nelayan pedagang pemilik kapal dan dive operator serta dengan survei daring yang ditujukan kepada wisatawan (domestik dan mancanegara), dive guide, dan dive operator. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa rasio antara nilai perikanan dan estimasi nilai rekreasi adalah 1:33, 1:28, dan 1:2,7 untuk tiap-tiap lokasi, yaitu Meulaboh, Takalar, dan Tanjung Luar. Hasil tersebut membuktikan bahwa potensi nilai rekreasi hiu dan pari lebih besar jika dibandingkan dengan nilai perikanannya. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan ekowisata hiu dan pari untuk menjadi alternatif kegiatan penangkapan hiu dan pari di lokasi-lokasi yang menjadikan hiu dan pari sebagai target penangkapan.

Title: Comparison of the Economic Value of Extractive and Non-Extractive Use of Sharks and Rays in Meulaboh, Takalar and Tanjung Luar

Most of the use of sharks and rays in Indonesia is still largely extractive, specifically fishing. This has an impact on the threat to the existence of sharks and rays which is indicated by their population. Actually, there are other types of use, that is sharks and rays ecotourism. This study aims to compares the economic value of sharks and rays ecotourism with the economic value from extractive use, in target fishing locations, Meulaboh, Takalar and Tanjung Luar. The extractive economic value is obtained from the market value using MMAF Trade Recommendation Letter data, while non-extractive economic value is given the use value through the Travel Cost Method (TCM), and non-use value using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Data for calculating the economic value of non-extractive sharks and rays were collected using in depth interview with fisherman-traders the boat owners and dive operators, and online surveys for tourists (domestic and international), dive guides, and dive operators. The results showed that the ratio between fisheries value and recreation value estimation is 1:33, 1:28 and 1: 2.7 for Meulaboh, Takalar, and Tanjung Luar locations, respectively. These results prove that the potential value of sharks and rays recreation is greater than the fisheries value. This study recommends shark and ray ecotourism as an alternative for sharks and rays fishing activities in locations where they are targeted for capture.



Keywords


contingent valuation method, ekowisata, hiu, pari, travel cost method, valuasi ekonomi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jsekp.v17i1.10890

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