PELUANG DAN TANTANGAN PENGEMBANGAN BISNIS INKLUSIF PERIKANAN TUNA SKALA KECIL DI PULAU MOROTAI

Riesti Triyanti, Hakim Miftakhul Huda, Rizki Aprilian Wijaya, Achmad Zamroni

Abstract


Potensi Kabupaten Pulau Morotai untuk mendukung produksi tuna sirip kuning provinsi maupun nasional sangat besar, namun tingkat pemanfaatannya rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: (1) kelayakan finansial usaha, (2) rantai pasok, (3) model bisnis eksisting, dan (4) strategi pengembangan bisnis. Penelitian dilaksanakan Maret hingga Juni 2021 di Kecamatan Morotai Selatan, Timur, dan Barat. Data primer dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dengan 60 nelayan dan pendalaman dengan pedagang besar, pengelola koperasi, unit pengolahan tuna. Analisis mencakup kelayakan usaha, rantai pasok, SWOT, dan deskriptif. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa penangkapan tuna di Morotai, yang dilakukan menggunakan alat pancing ulur dan tonda dan armada kapal motor dan kapal motor tempel memberikan penghasilan memadai bagi nelayan, namun sistem bisnis yang ada masih perlu ditingkatkan. Keuntungan yang diperoleh nelayan adalah Rp 153 juta untuk alat pancing ukur dengan kapal motor dan berturut-turut Rp 1,1 milyar dan Rp 134 juta untuk alat pancing ulur dan tonda dengan kapal motor tempel. Rantai pasok tuna di Morotai terdiri dari lima simpul, dengan share terbesar pada simpul koperasi, yaitu 45%. Hasil lain menunjukkan bahwa dalam sistem bisnis eksisting di Kepulauan Morotai terdapat kelompok nelayan yang belum inklusif dalam rantai pasok tuna, tidak bermitra dengan koperasi, tidak memiliki akses pasar, dan tidak terlibat dalam penentuan harga. Strategi pengembangan bisnis inklusif tuna di Morotai yang dapat direkomendasikan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah penerapan model pengelolaan perikanan terpadu yang didukung: (i) pasar yang mengakomodasikan investor rantai pasok, (ii) pembukaan akses permodalan bank, dan (iii) kemitraan nelayan dengan koperasi sebagai perantara dan unit pengolah ikan sebagai mitra bisnis.

 

Title: Prospect and Challenges for the Development of Small Scale Tuna Fisheries Inclusive Business in Morotai Island


The potential of the Morotai Island Regency to support the production of provincial and national yellowfin tuna is very large, but its utilization is low. The research aims to analyze: (1) the financial viability of the business, (2) the supply chain, (3) the existing business model, and (4) the business development strategy. The research was conducted from March to June 2021 in the South, East, and West Morotai Subdistrict. Primary data was collected through interviews with 60 fishers and deepening with wholesalers, cooperative managers, tuna processing units. The analysis includes business feasibility, supply chain, SWOT, and descriptive. The results showed that tuna fishing in Morotai, which was carried out using fishing rods and tonda and a fleet of motorboats and outboard motorboats, provided adequate income for fishers, but the existing business system still needed to be improved. The profit obtained by
fishermen is IDR 153 million for measuring fishing rods with motorboats and IDR 1.1 billion and IDR 134 million for fishing rods and trolleys with outboard motorboats. The tuna supply chain in Morotai consists of five nodes, with the largest share in cooperative nodes, which is 45%. Other results show that in the
existing business system in the Morotai Islands, there are fishing groups that are not yet included in the tuna supply chain, do not partner with cooperatives, do not have market access, and are not involved in pricing. The tuna inclusive business development strategy in Morotai that can be recommended from
the results of this study is the implementation of an integrated fisheries management model supported:(i) a market that accommodates supply chain investors, (ii) the opening of bank capital access, and (iii) fisher’s partnership with cooperatives as intermediaries and fish processing units as business partners.


Keywords


peluang; tantangan; tuna; skala kecil; bisnis inklusif; rantai pasok; SWOT; Morotai

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jksekp.v11i2.10225

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