BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME DENGAN PADAT PENEBARAN TINGGI

Rachman Syah, Makmur Makmur, Mat Fahrur

Abstract


Upaya meningkatkan produktivitas lahan tambak dapat dilakukan dengan meningkatkan padat penebaran disertai dengan pemberian akuinput yang prima serta dukungan teknologi yang memadai. Tiga padat penebaran yaitu 750; 1.000; dan 1.250 ekor/m2, diaplikasikan pada tambak dengan luasan 1.000 m2 dengan kedalaman air 1,8 m dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi berupa kincir dan root blower, pompa submersible, automatic feeder, central drain dan collector drain serta Instalasi Pengolah Air Limbah (IPAL). Kapasitas sistem aerasi adalah 500 kg biomassa udang/HP. Udang dipelihara selama 105 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat penebaran yang diaplikasikan menghasilkan bobot akhir udang yang relatif sama berkisar 15,48-16,30 (15,78±0,45) g/ekor dengan nilai pertumbuhan harian 0,16-0,18 (0,17±0,01) g/hari. Produksi yang diperoleh adalah 7.862; 10.699; dan 12.163 kg/petak, masing-masing pada padat penebaran 750; 1.000 dan 1.250 ekor/m2. Nilai rasio konversi pakan 1,4; 1,36; 1,55 dan kebutuhan listrik 3,2; 2,5; 2,4 kw/kg udang serta kebutuhan air 2,24; 1,66; 1,60 m3/kg udang. Biaya produksi udang terendah adalah Rp. 30.526/ kg udang pada padat penebaran 1.000 ekor/m2 dengan laba operasional sebesar Rp. 630.687.094/th. Padat penebaran 1.000 ekor/m2 menghasilkan kinerja lebih baik sehingga disarankan menjadi acuan padat penebaran untuk budidaya udang vaname superintensif. Teknologi ini memiliki potensi dampak terhadap lingkungan perairan, sehingga perlu dilengkapi sarana Instalasi Pengolah Air Limbah (IPAL) untuk pengolah air buangan tambak.

In order to increase of brackishwater pond’s productivity, an effort can be reached through high stocking density of shrimp accompanied by application of high quality inputs and supported by an appropriate technology. Three different stocking densities, were applied i.e., 750; 1,000; and 1,250 ind/m2. The shrimp were reared for 105 days in three ponds with sizing of 1,000 m2 each and the water depth of 1.8 m facilitated with aeration systems consisted of paddlewheels, root blower, submersible water pump, automatic feeder, central drainage, collector drainage and waste water treatment plan. The capacity aeration systems was 500 kg of shrimp biomass/HP. The results showed that all stocking densities produced the similar final body weight of shrimp which ranged between 15.48 to 16.30 (15.78±0.45) g/shrimp with daily growth rates were 0.16-0.18 (0.17±0.01) g/day. The total harvested shrimps from each stocking density were 7,862; 10,699, 12,163 kg/pond, respectively. The feed conversion ratio was 1.4, 1.36, and 1.55, whereas consumed electricities were 3.2, 2.5, and 2.4 kw/kg shrimp and water demands were 2.24, 1.66, and 1.60 m3/kg harvested shrimp. The lowest production cost was IDR 30,526/kg harvested shrimp which was spent for stocking density of 1,000 ind/m2, whereas the annual profit was IDR 630,687,094. The stocking density of 1,000 ind/m2 showed high performances, and then eventually is recommended for the L. vannamei super-intensive aquaculture. This technology is potential in affecting the adjacent environment, however the impacts might be minimized through the application of deploying wastewater treatment plan.


Keywords


padat penebaran; udang vaname; superintensif; stocking densities; Litopenaeus vannamei; super-intensive

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/ma.12.1.2017.19-26


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