PREVALENSI INFEKSI VIRAL NERVOUS NECROSIS (VNN) DAN IRIDOVIRUS PADA HATCHERI DAN BUDIDAYA IKAN LAUT

Sari Budi Moria Sembiring, Gigih Setia Wibawa, Ketut Mahardika, Zeny Widiastuti, Haryanti Haryanti

Abstract


Piscine nodavirus sebagai penyebab penyakit VNN (Viral Nervous Necrosis) dan iridovirus merupakan jenis virus yang dikenal menjadi penyebab utama kematian ikan laut yang dibudidayakan. Virus ini mampu menginfeksi ikan dari ukuran benih sampai ukuran konsumsi dan dalam waktu dua minggu, kematian mencapai 80% sampai 100%. Pada pembenihan larva dan benih ikan dalam skala rumah tangga ataupun hatcheri lengkap di sepanjang pantai di wilayah Bali Utara sering mengalami infeksi VNN dan iridovirus Namun, informasi terjadinya infeksi belum didata dengan baik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk memperoleh data dan informasi mengenai peta infeksi atau serangan virus pada pembudidaya/pembenihan ikan sepanjang tahun 2017 di Bali Utara. Sampling dilakukan pada bulan Februari, Mei, Agustus, dan Oktober. Di samping melakukan sampling, juga dilakukan input data dari hasil analisis sampel di laboratorium bioteknologi yang diperoleh dari pemilik hatcheri/pembudidaya ikan. Analisis VNN menggunakan metode IQPlus sedangkan analisis iridovirus dengan metode PCR konvensional dengan primer spesifik. Parameter yang diamati adalah prevalensi VNN dan iridovirus dari setiap hatcheri dan keramba jaring apung. Sebagai data penunjang pengukuran parameter kualitas air berupa suhu, salinitas, amoniak, dan nitrit yang dilakukan pada saat pengambilan sampel benih. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat infeksi VNN di hatcheri Bali utara terjadi di bulan September sebesar 33,3% dan iridovirus pada bulan Agustus mencapai 18,61%. Sedangkan tingkat prevalensi VNN tertinggi di KJA terjadi pada bulan Oktober mencapai 83,4% dan puncak infeksi iridovirus terjadi di bulan Februari dengan nilai prevalensi sebesar 50,0%.

VNN and iridovirus are viral diseases causing the highest mortality in mariculture. These viruses are able to infect eggs, larvae, juveniles and even marketable size fish. They can cause 80% to 100% mortality in just two weeks. Larvae or fingerlings in small or big scale hatcheries in Northern Bali were frequently infected by VNN or Iridovirus. Unfortunately, information about the local disease outbreaks was not well documented. The aim of this research was to collect data and information about the infection of these viruses in hatcheries and floating net cage mariculture in Northern Bali during 2017. Sampling was conducted in February, May, August, and October, 2017. In addition to the primary data from the field activities, disease infection secondary dataset from the fish farmers who analyzed their infected fish in our laboratory were also used. The identification of VNN infection was performed following IQPlus method while Iridovirus was tested using the conventional PCR method with specific primers. The parameters observed were the VNN and Iridovirus prevalence in each hatchery and floating net cage. Water quality parameters were measured in situ such as temperature, salinity, ammonia, and nitrite. The results showed that infection of VNN in hatcheries at Northern Bali, the highest infection was found in September as high as 33.3% and Iridovirus in August at 18.61%. While in Floating Net Cage the highest infection for VNN was found in October with value of 83.4% and Iridovirus was found in February with value of 50.0%.
 


Keywords


prevalensi; VNN; iridovirus; hatcheri; budidaya laut; prevalence; VNN; iridovirus; hatcheries; mariculture

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/ma.13.2.2018.83-90


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