KINERJA EKSPOR UDANG INDONESIA DI AMERIKA SERIKAT TAHUN 2009-2017: PENDEKATAN MODEL CONSTANT MARKET SHARE (CMS)

Siti Sahatul Fatimah, Sri Marwanti, Suprapti Supardi

Abstract


Ekspor merupakan salah satu parameter yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan, agar suatu negara dapat mengetahui seberapa besar pertumbuhan ekonominya. Udang merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor yang memiliki peranan penting dalam kontribusi ekonomi Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kinerja ekspor komoditas udang Indonesia di Amerika Serikat tahun 2009-2017. Komoditas udang yang diteliti dikelompokkan lebih spesifik menjadi tiga jenis produk, yaitu udang beku, udang segar dan udang olahan. Metode analisis adalah Constant Market Share (CMS) digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berupa data sekunder dari
tahun 2009 hingga tahun 2017 yang diperoleh dari United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Division (UN Comtrade) dan International Trade Center (ITC:).Rata-rata pertumbuhan ekspor udang Indonesia
secara umum lebih tinggi daripada rata-rata pertumbuhan ekspor udang dunia. Kinerja ekspor udang beku lebih baik dibanding udang segar dan udang olahan, dilihat dari aspek efek komposisi produk dan dan efek daya saing, namun dari aspek efek distribusi udang beku dan udang segar kalah dibanding dengan udang olahan. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa udang beku Indonesia memiliki potensi yang sangat besar untuk dikembangkan, walaupun dari aspek distribusi masih lemah (ditunjukkan dengan nilai yang bertanda negatif). Hasil CMS menunjukkan bahwa ekspor udang Indonesia masih berfokus pada udang beku saja, dan kurang memprioritaskan udang segar dan udang olahan. Hal tersebut
menunjukkan bahwa perlu adanya evaluasi baik dari sisi produksi, distribusi dan mutu produk untuk meningkatkan kinerja produk terutama di udang segar maupun olahan. 

Title: Export Performance of Indonesian Shrimp In the United States During 2009-2017: A Constant Market Share Model Approach  

Export is an important sector to calculate the economic growth of the country. Shrimp is one of main commodity that gives significant contribution to Indonesia economic. The research was aimed
at analyzing the export performance of Indonesian shrimp in the United States during 2009-2017. Specifically, the shrimps were grouped into three categories, frozen shrimp, fresh shrimp, and processed shrimp. Constant Market Share (CMS) approach was used in this study. This study used secondary data from 2009 to 2017 that were collected from the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Division (UN Comtrade) and International Trade Center (ITC). The average growth of Indonesia shrimp was higher than the average growth of the world shrimp exports. The result of CMS suggested that export performance of frozen shrimp was better than the fresh shrimp and processed shrimp based on product composition and competitiveness effect. However, processed shrimp was better than frozen shrimp and fresh shrimp in terms of distribution effect. The result showed that Indonesia shrimp exports were still focused only on frozen shrimp rather than fresh shrimp and processed shrimp. Frozen shrimp had a great potential of development despite of its poor distribution (negative value). This phenomenon suggested a necessary evaluation on the production, distribution, and product quality to improve the product performance especially on fresh shrimp and processed shrimp.


Keywords


Udang beku; udang segar; udang olahan; kinerja ekspor; constant market share

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jsekp.v15i1.7677

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