PROGRAM STRATEGIS DALAM MENGATASI KENDALA KELEMBAGAAN PENGELOLAAN EKOWISATA BAHARI DI RAJA AMPAT (Studi Kasus: Kampung Wisata Distrik Meos Mansar)

Nur Aini, Arif Satria, Ekawati Sri Wahyuni, Dietrich G. Bengen

Abstract


Raja Ampat merupakan kawasan potensial ekowisata bahari di jantung segitiga terumbu karang dunia dan untuk mengembangkan potensi tersebut, pemerintah setempat menetapkan pembentukan kampung-kampung wisata di sejumlah lokasi. Dalam perkembangannya, kelembagaan pengelolaan kampung-kampung wisata ini tidak terlepas dari tantangan untuk mengakomodasikan berbagai kepentingan dan pengaruh para pemangku kepentingan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (i) mengkaji kepentingan dan pengaruh pemangku kepentingan yang ada, (ii) mengidentifikasi kendala kelembagaannya, dan (iii) merumuskan program strategis yang dibutuhkan untuk meningkatkan kinerja pengelolaan kampung-kampung wisata tersebut. Lokasi penelitian mencakup Kampung Arborek, Yenbuba dan Sawinggrai Distrik Meos Mansar Kabupaten Raja Ampat. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan September hingga Oktober 2020, dengan dua pendekatan analisis yaitu Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) dan deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemerintah, Dewan Adat Suku Maya, dan Conservation International Indonesia berada pada posisi key player, dengan kepentingan dan pengaruh yang tinggi terhadap pengelolaan ekowisata bahari di kampungkampung wisata. Kelompok masyarakat dan swasta berada pada posisi subyek dengan kepentingan yang tinggi terhadap sumber daya alam tinggi, namun memiiki pengaruh yang rendah dalam pengambilan keputusan. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan adanya kendala kelembagaan dalam pengelolaan kampung wisata, yaitu konflik pemanfaatan ruang dalam sistem pengelolaan tarif Kartu Jasa Lingkungan (KJL). Penelitian ini merekomendasikan sebuah intervensi kebijakan berupa program strategis yang terdiri dari beberapa level dan diprioritaskan pada: (i) pengembangan pengelolaan kolaboratif antar stakeholders, (ii) pemberdayaan masyarakat, (iii) peningkatan efektivitas konservasi, dan (iv) pendistribusian akses yang adil kepada masyarakat.

 

Title:  Strategic Programs for Overcoming Institutional Obstacles of Marine Ecotourism Management in Raja Ampat (Case Study: Tourism Villages in Meos Mansar District )


Raja Ampat is a potential marine tourism area located in the coral triangle. In 2009, the Raja Ampat Regency Government designated several villages as tourism villages to encourage economic growth in the community in the tourism sector. The management of marine ecotourism in Raja Ampat Tourism Village is inseparable from several institutional obstacles. Every stakeholder involved in management has an interest and influence. This study aims to examine stakeholder mapping, institutional constraints, and strategic programs needed for marine ecotourism management in tourist villages. The research location is in Arborek Village, Yenbuba and Sawinggrai, Meos Mansar District, Raja Ampat Regency. The analysis technique used is Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM) and qualitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the government, the Maya tribe Adat Council, and Conservation International Indonesia are the key players who had a high interest and influence on marine ecotourism management. Community and private groups are in subjects position who had a high interest in natural resources, but their influence in decision-making is low. The management of marine ecotourism in the tourist village of Raja Ampat has several institutional obstacles. The main obstacle is conflict over space utilization in the environmental service card tariff management system. To overcome the obstacles, it is necessary to implement strategic programs effectively. This study suggests a strategic program consisting of several levels. The strategic programs that are prioritized are the development of collaborative management among stakeholders, community empowerment, increasing conservation effectiveness, and distributing access to the community.


Keywords


ekowisata bahari; kampung wisata; kelembagaan; kendala kelembagaan; pengembangan ekowisata; program strategis; Raja Ampat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jksekp.v11i2.9655

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