Coastal Vulnerability Assessment Along The North Java Coastlines-Indonesia

Dian N. Handiani, Aida Heriati, Fitry Suciaty

Abstract

The north coast of Java is an area with very diverse maritime activities. These high activities threaten the ecosystem and environmental sustainability. Several areas already experience environmental degradation and most of the threats come from ocean pollution, coastal erosion, continuous tidal flood (rob), and coastal land subsidence. Furthermore, the coastal degradation is worsened by climate change which may cause the area more vulnerable to disaster. This study aims at evaluating the coastal vulnerability using weighted coastal vulnerability index (CVIw). The method calculates coastal vulnerability by weighting physical coastal parameters using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). CVIw calculation result shows that the vulnerability is dominant at high (39%) and very high (51%) classes. The high vulnerability occurs in Tangerang, Bekasi, Brebes, Demak, Jepara, Pati, and Rembang Regencies. Meanwhile, very high vulnerability takes place in several regencies: Serang, Karawang, Subang, Indramayu, Cirebon, Tegal, Kendal, Semarang, and Gresik. The parameters of relief, coastal features, tidal range and shoreline give contribution more in coastal vulnerability besides lithology, sea level change, and wave height. Identifying vulnerability in these areas might help local governments to prioritize their action plan in coastal disasters mitigation.

Keywords

Coastal vulnerability; North Java; disaster; mitigation

References

Bagdanavičiūtė, I., Kelpšaitė-Rimkienė, T., & Soomere, T. (2015). Multi-criteria evaluation approach to coastal vulnerability index development in micro-tidal low-lying areas. Ocean & Coastal Management, 104, 124-135. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.12.011

Bevacqua, A., Yu, D., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Coastal vulnerability: Evolving concepts in understanding vulnerable people and places. Environmental Science & Policy, 82, 19-29. DOI:10.1016/j.envsci.2018.01.006

Bird, E.C.F., & Ongkosongo, O.S.R. (1980). Environmental Changes on Coasts of Indonesia. The United Nation University, Tokyo, pp.52.

Contestabile, P., & Vicinanza, D. (2020). Coastal Vulnerability and Mitigation Strategies: From Monitoring to Applied Research. Water, 12(9), 2594. DOI:10.3390/w12092594

Gordon, A., Susanto, R.D., & Vranes, K. (2003). Cool Indonesian throughflow as a consequence of restricted surface layer flow. Nature, 425(6960), 824-828. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02038

Gornitz, V. (1991). Global coastal hazards from future sea level rise. Glob. Planet. Chang, 89(4), 379–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(91)90173-O

Handiani, D.N., Darmawan, S., Heriati, A., Aditya, Y.D. (2019, in Indonesian). Coastal vulnerability study to the sea level rise in Subang Regency-West Java. Jurnal Kelautan Nasional, 14(3), 145-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/jkn.v14i3.7583.

Kepel, T.L., Heriati, A., Mbay, L.O.N., Ati, R.N.A.A., Jayawiguna, M.H., & Abida, R.R. (2019, in Indonesian). Mangrove rehabilitation as coastal abrasion defenses in North Coast Java. In: T. Solihuddin, M.H. Jayawiguna, Triyono, editors. North Coast Java strategies based on coastal zone dynamic [Strategi Rehabilitasi Pantura Jawa Berdasarkan Dinamika Wilayah Pesisir], AMAFRAD Press, Marine Research Center, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Republic of Indonesia (MoMAF), Jakarta, p. 53-75. (Indonesian)

Koroglu, A., Ranasinghe, R., Jiménez, J.A., & Dastgheib, A. (2019). Comparison of Coastal Vulnerability Index applications for Barcelona Province. Ocean & Coast. Manag, 178, 1047992, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.05.001.

Kulp, S.A. & Strauss, B.H. (2019). Vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding. Nature Communications. https://doi.org/10.1038/s414 67-019-12808-z

Mahapatra, M., Ramakrishnan. R., & Rajawat, A.S. (2015). Coastal vulnerability assessment using analytical hierarchical process for South Gujarat coast, India. Nat Hazards, 76, 139-159. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1491-y

Ongkosongo, O.S.R. (1979). The Nature of Coastline Changes In Indonesia. Workshop on Coastal Geomorphology, UNESCO, Singapore-Malaysia,.

Purbani, D., Salim, H.L., Marzuki, M.I., Abida, R.F., Tussadiah, A., & Triyono. (2019, in Indonesian). Abrasion and accretion in the last decades case study: Serang, Indramayu, Brebes, Demak, and Gresik Districts In: T. Solihuddin, M.H. Jayawiguna, Triyono, editors. North Coast Java strategies based on coastal zone dynamic. AMAFRAD Press, Marine Research Center, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Republic of Indonesia (MoMAF), Jakarta. p.37-51.

Saaty, T.L. (1977). A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 15(3), 234-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2496(77)90033-5

Shaw, J., Taylor, R.B., Forbes, D.L., Ruz, M.-H., Solomon, S. (1998). Sensitivity of the coasts of Canada to sea-level rise. Bull. Geol. Surv. Can. 505, 1-79.

Solihuddin, T., Dhiadudin, R., Mustikasari, E., Rahayu, Y.P, & Husrin, S. (2019, in Indonesian). North Coast Java rehabilitation: issues, analysis, and challenges. In: T. Solihuddin, M.H. Jayawiguna, Triyono, editors. North Coast Java strategies based on coastal zone dynamic, AMAFRAD Press, Marine Research Center, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Republic of Indonesia (MoMAF), Jakarta, p. 9-35.

Solihuddin, T., Husrin, S., Salim, H.L., Kepel, T.L., Mustikasari, E., Heriati, A., Ati, R. N. A., Purbani, D., Mbay, L.O.N., Indriasari, V.Y., & Berliana, B. (2021). Coastal erosion on the north coast of Java: adaptation strategies and coastal management. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 777, 1-12. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/777/1/012035.

Thieler, E.R., & Hammar-Klose, E.S. (2000). National Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise; Preliminary Results for the US Pacific Coast; Technical Report; U.S. Geological Survey: Woods Hole, MA, USA.

Willemsen, P., Lelij A.C. van der, Wesenbeeck, B. van. (2019). Risk Assessment North Coast Java. Deltares, Report Project No. 1220476-002-ZKS-0007, p. 1-25.