Economic Benefits of Marine Protected Areas, Case of Anambas Islands, Indonesia

Leny Dwihastuty, Supriyadi Supriyadi, Umi Muawanah, Muhammad H. Jayawiguna


This study aims to evaluate the economic benefits derived from conservation areas using the case of National Marine Protected Areas (MPA) in Anambas Islands. The study evaluated the top four reef-associated fish with high economic values, namely grouper, red snapper, threadfin bream, and trevally fish.  The employed bioeconomic hybrid model to estimate the Maximum Economic Yield (MEY) for those fish under the sustainable conservation policies. We found positive economic benefits from conservation in Anambas Islands. The MPA has shown both biological and economic benefits, namely the spill over impact and total economic value of harvest at amount of IDR 301,481,685,170/year. We found that the 50% MSY policy on fisheries TAC in MPA site will still sustain the fisheries resource but fishers are less profitable. Some strategies to augment the outcome of Anambas Islands MPA include affirmation policies both from national and local government to increase fishing capacity and skills such as operating larger vessels, eg 10 GT and provide programs and assistance on providing alternative livelihoods for fishermen.


Bio Economic; Marine Conservation; Reef Fisheries; Anambas Islands-Indonesia; Marine Protected Areas (MPA)

Full Text:



Adrianto, L. (2006, in Indonesian). Synopsis Introduction to the Concept and Methodology of Economic Valuation of Coastal and Marine Resources. Center for the Study of Coastal and Ocean Resources. Bogor Agricultural University Bogor, Indonesia.

Boer, M., & Aziz, K.A. (2007, in Indonesian). The Sampling Design of Catch Per Unit Effort for Fish Stock Assessment. Indonesian Journal of Aquatic and Fisheries Science, 14(1), 67-71.

Badan Pusat Statistik [BPS-Statistics Indonesia]. (2012, in Indonesian). Anambas Islands in Numbers 2011. BPS-Statistics Indonesia. District of Anambas Island. Indonesia.

Cohen, P.J., & Simon, J.F. (2013). Sustaining small-scale fisheries with periodically harvested marine reserves. Marine Policy, 37, 278-287.

Christie, P., White, A., & Deguit, E. (2002). Starting point or solution? Community-based marine protected areas in the Philippines. Journal of Environmental Management, 66(4), 441-454.

Dahuri, R. (2003, in Indonesian). Marine Biodiversity: Suistainable Development Asset of Indonesia. Gramedia. Jakarta.

Dahuri, R. (2008, in Indonesian). 14 Ways to Build Capture Fisheries in Indonesia. Osean Magazine. Issue 59. Jakarta.

Eun-Jung, Woo. (2020). Environmental Marketing Policy to Enhance Customers’ Environmental Awareness. Journal of Distribution Science, 18(11), 23-30.

Fauzi, A. (2002). A Note Surplus Production Model. IPB Darmaga, Bogor.

Fauzi, A., & Suzy, A. (2002). Natural Resource Accounting through Resource Depreciation Analysis: An Application fo Fisheries Resources. Paper presented at National Resource Accounting Congress. Jogjakarta. September 20 until 21st.

Fauzi, A., & Suzy, A. (2005). An Optimization Model of Marine Protected Area and its Social Impacts on Fishing Communities of Seribu Island, Indonesia. Paper presented at the First International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC 1). Geelong, Australia. October 23rd until 28th.

Gulland, J.A. (1969). Manual of methods for fish stock assessment. Part 1. Fish population analysis. FAO Manual Fisheries Science. Italy. Rome.

Gulland, J.A. (1983) Fish Stock Assessment : A Manual of Basic Methods. John Wiley and sons. Singapore.

Haryani, E.B.S., Fauzi, A., & Monintja, D.R. (2009, in Indonesian). Bionomy Analysis of Coral Fish in the Waters of Raja Ampat Regency, West Papua Province. PSP Newsletter. Papua. 18(3).

Hidayat, S., Pabuayon, I.M., & Umi Muawanah. (2020). Marketing Practices and Value-Added Fish Product in East Indonesia. Journal of Business Economics and Environmental Studies, 10(2), 33-41. DOI:10.13106/jbees.2020.vol10.no2.33

Hilborn, R., & Walters, C.J. (1992). Quantitative Fisheries Stock Assesment, Choice, Dynamics and Uncertainty. Chapman and Hall. New York.

Hutubessy, B.G., Mosse, J.W., & Limmon, G.E. (2016, in Indonesian). The Implementation of Ecosystem Approach for Reef Fisheries Management Into The Program Of Lumbung Ikan Nasional (Lin) in Maluku. Amanisal, 5(1), 23-34.

Li, E.A. (2000). Optimum harvesting with marine reserves. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20(4):882-896.

Loneragan, N.R., Wiryawan, B., Hordyk, A.R., Halim, A., Proctor, C., Satria, F., Yulianto, I., (Eds). (2021). Proceedings from Workshops on Management Strategy Evaluation of Data-Limited Fisheries: Towards Sustainability - Applying the Method Evaluation and Risk Assessment Tool to Seven Indonesian Fisheries. Murdoch University, Western Australia, and IPB University, Indonesia, 185 pp.

King. (1996). Introduction to Fisheries Biology and Stock Assessment. Fishing News (Books). London.

Kunarso. (2008, in Indonesian). Coral Reefs in Troubled and Threatened with Danger. Jogjakarta Maritime Journal, 8(13).

McClanahan, T.R., & Mangi, S. (2000). Spillover of Exploitable Fishes from A Marine Park and Its Effect on The Adjacent Fishery. Ecological Application, 10(6), 1792-1805.

Muchtar, A.S. Sadarun. B., & Siang, R.D. (2014, in Indonesian). The Benefits Analysis of Reef Fishing Efforts in Wawatu Village, North Moramo District, South Konawe Regency. Journal of Fisheries Business, 1(1), 63-74.

Myers, R.A., & Worm, B. (2003). Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature, 15, 280- 283.

Pasisingi, N. (2011, in Indonesian). Surplus Production Model for Management of Crayfish (Portunus pelagicus) Resources in Banten Bay, Serang Regency, Banten Province. Essay. Bogor Agricultural Institute. Bogor.

Pauly, D. (1984). Fish Population Dynamics in Tropical Waters: A Manual For Use With Programmable Calculators. Manila. ICLARM Studies and Review, 8, 325p.

Takashina, N., & Mougi, A. (2013). Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 341, 64-70. DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.09.027

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan RI. (2016, in Indonesian) Marine and Fisheries Ministerial Decree Number 47 of 2016 concerning Utilization of Aquatic Conservation Areas. 20p. Jakarta.

Rosenberg A.A., Fogarty, M.J., Sissenwine M.P., Beddington, J.R., & Shepherd, J.G. (1993). Achieving sustainable use of renewable resources. Science, 262(5135), 828-829. DOI:10.1126/science.262.5135.828

Saraj, B.S., Yachkaschi, A., Oladi, D., Teimouri-S, F., & Latifi, H. (2009). The Recreational Valuation of a Natural Forest Park Using Travel Cost Method in Iran. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 2(1), 85-92. DOI:10.3832/ifor0497-002

Schaefer, M.B. (1954). Some Aspects of Dynamics of Populations Important to the Management of the Commercial Marine Fisheries. Bull. Inter-Am. Trop. Tuna. Comm, 1, 7-56.

Schaefer, M.B. (1957). A Study of the Dynamics of the Fishery for Yellofin Tuna in the Eastern Tropical Pasific Ocean. Bull. Inter-Am. Trop. Tuna Comm, 2, 247-248.

Sparre, P., & Venema, S.C. (1999). Introduction of Tropical Fish Stock Assessment Manual Book-I (Translated Edition). Cooperation of the Food and Agriculture Organization, the United Nations with the Center for Fisheries Research and Development, the Agency for Agricultural Research and Development. Jakarta.

Venema. (1992). Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Assessment Part I. FAO DANIDA.

Walpole, R.E. (1992). Pengantar Statistika (diterjemahkan oleh Bambang Sumantri). Edisi ketiga. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.

Widodo, J. (1986). Surplus Production Models and Analysis of Exploited Population in Fisheries. Oceana, 11(3), 119-130.

Widodo, J. (1987). Modified Surplus Production Methods of Gulland (1961), and Schnute (1977). Oceana, 12(2), 119-130.

Zhou, S., Smith, A.D.M., Punt, A.E., Richardson, A.J., Gibbs, M., Fulton, E.A., Pascoe, S, Bulman, C.M., Bayliss, P., & Sainsbury, K. (2010). Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management Requires A Change to The Selective Fishing Philosophy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(21), 9485-9489. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0912771107