Characteristics of Marine Litters in the West Coast of Bali

Semeidi Husrin, Ulung Jantama Wisha, Rahmadi Prasetyo, Aprizon Putra, Adli Attamimi


Kuta beach in Bali is a world-famous tourist destination has been suffering from marine litters (or debris) disaster almost every year. Mitigation efforts have been carried out by the local government started from educating the people as well as continuing mass cleaning campaigns for the stranded litters in the beach. The research has an objective to understand the physical processes of marine debris characteristics in Kuta such as its propagation and distribution along the coastline and in the water columns during the two different seasons (West Monsoon and Transitional seasons). A hydrodynamic model was developed to investigate the transport of marine litters from their sources by considering the tide-driven surface currents and wind. Field surveys were also conducted to assess marine litter’s characteristics in the surface and in the sea beds for both plastic and wood types of litters. Hydrodynamic simulation shows that the surface current ranging from 0.05 – 1.75 m/s is capable of transporting marine surface debris from Bali Straits and other sources in the South of Bali to Kuta during West Monsoon season. The collected litters during the West Monsoon season were four times larger in quantity. The concentration of litters in the seabed and in the water column is larger near to the coastline than further offshore. In the meantime, during Transitional season, Kuta was completely free from marine litters. Results from surveys also showed that the most effective measures for marine litters in Kuta is self-awareness of the people to keep the environment clean.


marine litters, pollution, hydrodynamics, Kuta, Bali.

Full Text:



Attamimi, A. (2015). Pemodelan Hidrodinamika Pesisir Pantai Kuta Bali Untuk Analisis Kerentanan Cemaran Sampah. Bachelor Thesis. Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Padjajaran, Bandung. 132hlm.

Attamimi, A. Purba NP. Anggraeni SR. Harahap, SA. Husrin, S. (2015). Investigation of Marine debris in Kuta beach, Bali, Presented article in The 1st Young Scientist International Conference of Water Resources Development and Environmental Protection, Malang, Indonesia, 5-7 June 2015

Basurko, OC. Gabiña, G.,Andrés, M. Rubio, A. Uriarte, A. & Krug, I. (2015). Fishing For Floating Marine Litters SE Bay of Biscay: Review and Feasibility Study, Marine Policy 61 (2015) 103–112.BPS, (2007). Peta Kepadatan Penduduk Menurut Basic Grid Square – Pulau Jawa dan Bali, Developing system of small area statistics, Badan Pusat Statistic and JICA 2007.

Butterworth, A. Clegg, I. & Bass, C. (2012). Untangled – Marine Debris: A Global Picture of the Impact on Animal Welfare and of Animal-Focused Solutions. London: World Society for the Protection of Animals

Di-Méglio, N. & Campana, I. (2017). Floating Macro-Litter along the Mediterranean French Coast: Composition, Density, Distribution and Overlap with Cetacean Range. Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017), (in- press)

Fernandino, G. Elliff, CI. & Silva, IR. (2015). Degree of Pollution by Benthic Litter in Beaches In Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, Scientia Plena Vol. 11, Num. 03 2015,

GESAMP (2016). Sources, Fate and Effects of Micro Plastics in the Marine Environment: Part Two of a Global Assessment. (Kershaw, P.J., and Rochman, C.M., eds). Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). Rep. Stud. GESAMP No. 93, 220 p.

Jambeck, JR. Geyer, R. Wilcox, C. Sieger, TR. Perryman, M. Andrady, A. Narayan, R. & Law, KL. (2015). Plastic Waste Inputs from Land into the Ocean. Science 13 Feb 2015, Vol. 347, Issue 6223, pp. 768-771, DOI: 10.1126/science.1260352

Lebreton, LCM. Greera, SD. & Borreroa, JC. (2012). Numerical Modelling of Floating Debris In the World’s Oceans, Marine Pollution Bulletin 64 (2012) 653–661.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Program (2014). Report on the Entanglement of Marine Species in Marine Debris with an Emphasis on Species in the United States. Silver Spring, MD. 28 pp

OSPAR - Oslo and Paris Conventions for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (2009). Marine litter in the North-east Atlantic region. London: OSPAR Commission. Publication number 386/2009.

OSPAR - Oslo and Paris Conventions for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (2010). Guidline for Monitoring Marine Litter on the Beaches in the OSPAR Maritime Area. London: OSPAR Commission

Pasquini, G. Ronchi, F. Strafella, P. Scarcella, G. & Fortibuoni, T. (2016). Seabed Litter Composition, Distribution and Sources in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean). Waste Management (2016),

Putra, A. & Husrin S. (2016). Kualitas Perairan Pasca Cemaran Sampah Laut Di Pantai Kuta Bali, Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis - ITKT – IPB (in press)

Ryan, P.G. Moore, C.J. van Franeker, J.A. & Moloney, C.L. (2009). Monitoring the Abundance of Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364(1526): 1999-2012

TIME (2011). Holidays in Hell: Bali's Ongoing Woes, By Andrew Marshall / Bali Saturday, Apr. 09, 2011. Link:,8599,2062604,00. html, last access: May, 22nd 2017.

Tutman, P. Kapiris, K. Kirinčić M. & Pallaoro, A. (2017). Floating Marine Litter as a Raft for Drifting Voyages for Planes Minutus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) And Liocarcinus Navigator (Crustacea: Decapoda: Polybiidae), Marine Pollution Bulletin, (in- press)

Wang, J. Kiho, K. Ofiara, D. Zhao, Y. Bera, A. Lohmann, R. & Baker. MC. (2017). The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment: World Ocean Assessment 1 – Chapter 25: Marine Debris, Cambride University Press, UK

Werner, S. Budziak, A. van Franeker, J. Galgani, F. Hanke, G. Maes, T. Matiddi, M. Nilsson, P. Oosterbaan, L. Priestland, E. Thompson, R. Veiga, J. & Vlachogianni, T. (2016). Harm Caused by Marine Litter. MSFD GES TG Marine Litter -Thematic Report; JRC Technical report; EUR 28317 EN;DOI:10.2788/690366

Yosafat, F.E. (2012). Pergerakan Sampah Lautan dengan Pendekatan Model Trajektori Partikel di Perairan Selat Bali (Thesis Magister). Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung. 2012

Yunanto A. Suganda, E. Soesilo, TEB. & Hanggono, A. (2014). Modeling Abundance and Control of Litter on Kuta Beach, Bali, Indonesia, International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2014) Volume 15, No 1, pp 708-729