The Existence of Ornamental Coral in Different Live Coral Coverage Condition in Saleh Bay, West Nusa Tenggara

Ofri Johan, Yulius Yulius, Hadiwijaya Lesmana Salim, Idil Ardi, Muhammad Abrar, August Daulat


Ornamental coral is one of the trading commodities targets with high demand in all of the world because of its color and unique shape. Various types of ornamental corals are usually found in a specific area and out of reach, where one of them situated in water depth that it so difficult to find. West Nusa Tenggara Province is known as one of the ornamental coral suppliers that has not been touched much by research related to the existence of ornamental coral natural resources. This study aims to obtain preliminary data on the existence of ornamental coral, especially in Saleh Bay waters. Observations carried out from 6 to 11 May 2015 at 6 locations, determined based on distance from the mainland with respective representation, which divided into categories such as near, medium and far using the straight-line transect methods for coral reefs condition, while belt transect methods used for ornamental corals assessment. The results showed the health of coral reefs in good condition with the cover above 50% at all stations except station 4 (medium category), where Acropora coral species dominated at stations 5 and 6 (distant category). The bottom substrate dominated by coral fragments and dead corals with algae (DCA), which are found 28 genera of ornamental corals and considered as trade commodities such as Euphyllia glabrescens, Euphyllia cristata, Euphyllia ancora, Echinophora sp, Gonioporasp, Lobophyllia sp, Physogyra sp, Merulina sp, and Turbinaria sp. The research location can be used as a permanent study area for ornamental coral focus subject and as an indicator for sustainable ornamental coral management in the region.


Coral reefs condition; ornamental coral; trading target; Saleh Bay

Full Text:



Anonymous. (2004). Carrying Capacity of Marine and Fisheries of the Sunda Strait, Tomini, Saleh Bay and the Gulf Ekas. Agency for Research and Development of Marine and Fisheries. Jakarta. 122 pp. [Indonesian]

Anonymous. (2009). Awaken “Giant” in the Bay Saleh, Towards a Special Economic Zone and Fisheries. Online. Accessed on June 3rd 2015. [Indonesian]

Anonymous. (2013). Zoning Plan for Coastal Areas and Small Islands of Sumbawa. Directorate General of Coastal and Small Islands. Marine Spatial Planning Directorate, Coastal and Small Islands. Jakarta.

Bacalso, R.T.M., & Wolff, M.. (2014). Throphic Flow Structure of the Danajon Ecosystem (Central Philippines) and Impacts of Illegal and Destructive Fishing Practices. Journal of Marine Systems, 139, 103-118.

Bailey, M., & Sumaila, U.R. (2015). Destructive Fishing and Fisheries Enforcement In Eastern Indonesia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 530, 195-211.

Brown, C., Browne, N., Mcllwain, J.L., & Zinke, J. (2018). Inshore, Turbid Coral Reefs From Northwest Borneo Exhibiting Low Diversity, But High Cover Shows Evidence of Resilience to Various Environmental Stressors. PeerJ Preprints.

Bruckner, A.W. (2001). Tracking The Trade in Ornamental Coral Reef Organismns: The Importance of CITES and Its Limitations. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation, 3, 79-94.

Calfo, A.R. (2007). Book of Coral Propagation; Reef Gardening for Aquarists, 2(1). Reading Trees, USA, pp. 1-27.

Cesar, H. (1996). Economic Analysis of Indonesia Coral Reefs. Environment Department, World Bank. 97 pp.

Ellis, S. (1999). Farming Soft Corals for the Marine Aquarium Trade, vol. 140. Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture Publication, pp. 1–6.

Fadli, N., Muchlisin, Z.A., Affan, M., & El Rahimi, S.A. (2014). The Status of Coral Reefs in Aceh Besar district, Aceh Province, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux. 7(5): 365-371.

Foden, W.B., S.H.M. Butchart, S.N., Stuart, J.C.Vie & H.R. Akaya. (2013). Identifying the World’s Most Climate Change Vulnerable Species: A Systematic Trait-Based Assessment of all Birds, Amphibians and Corals. PLoS ONE 8(6): e65427. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065427.

Fox, H.E., Pet, J.S., Dahuri, R., & Caldwell, R.L. (2003). Recovery in Rubble Fields: Long-term Impacts of Blast Fishing. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 46(8): 1024-1031.

Fox, H.E., & Caldwell, R.L. (2006). Recovery From Blast Fishing on Coral Reefs: a Tale of two Scales. Ecological Applications, 16(5), 2006, pp. 1631–1635.[1631:RFBFOC]2.0.CO;2

Gomez, E.D. & Yap, H.T. (1984). Monitoring Reef Condition. Dalam Kenchington R A. and B. Hudson E. T. (ed). Coral reef Management Hand Book. Unesco Regional Office for Science and Technology for South East Asia. Jakarta. 171 p.

Green, E.P., & Shirley, F. (1999). The Global Trade in Corals. World Conservation Monitoring Centre. World Conservation Press, Cambridge UK. vii + 60 pp.

Grey, M., Blais, A.M., & Vincent, A.C.J. (2005). Magnitude and Trends of Marine Fish Curio Imports to the USA. Oryx 39, 413–420.

Grydehøj, A. & Nurdin, N. (2015). Politics of Technology in the Informal Governance of Destructive Fishing in Spermonde, Indonesia’, GeoJournal. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-014-9619-x.

Hadi, T.A., Giyanto,. Prayudha, B., Hafizt, M., Budiyanto, A., Suharsono. (2017). Indonesian Coral Reefs Status in 2018. Jakarta: Puslit Oseanografi - LIPI. viii + 26 hlm.; 17,6 cm x 25 cm

Johan. O. (2009). Studies of Potential Propagation of Economically Important Ornamental Coral Support Sustainable Trade In Indonesia. Proceedings of the Aquaculture Technology Innovation Forum 2009. 1193-1198 p. [Indonesian]

Johan, O., Azwar, Z., & Priono, B. (2013). Potential and Aquaculture Development Policy Marine Ornamental Fish and Ornamental Reef In Indonesia. [Analysis of aquaculture development policy 2013]. 69-78 p. [Indonesian]

Johan, O., Hadie, W., Saputra, A., Haryadi, J., & Listyanto, N. (2007). Propagation of Ornamental Coral to Supports Sustainable Trade. J. Ris. Akuakultur, 2(3): 419-428. [Indonesian]

Johan, O., Prasetio, A.B., Ardi, I., Syam A.R. & Quinn, N.J. (2016). The Abundance of Ornamental Corals After Mass Die Off in 1997 on the Padang Shelf Reef System, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 8(1), 29-38.

Johan, O., Timotius, S., & Soekarno. (2002a). Ornamental Coral Stock Assessment in Rembang and Lampung. Yayasan TERANGI. Jakarta. ii +13 p. [Indonesian]

Johan, O. (2002b). Stock Assessment of Ornamental Coral in Kendari. Cooperation Association of Ornamental Fish Koral Shellfish and Indonesia and Indonesian Coral Reef Working Group. Final Report. v + 29 p. [Indonesian]

Linan-Cabello, M.A., Olivos-Orti, A., Quijano-Scheggia, S., Resendiz-Flores, M.L., & Ortega-Ortiz. C.D (2016). Effect of Terrestrial Runoff the Coral Communities in Santiago Bay, Colima, Mexican Pacific Coast. Rev. Biol. Trop. J. Trop. Biol, 64(3), 1185-1200.

Lionel, Ng. C.S., Toh, T.C., & Chou, L.M. (2016). Coral Restoration in Singapore’s Sediment-Challenged Sea. Regional Studies in Marine Science.

Messina, A.M. & Biggs, T.W. ( 2016). Contributions of Human Activities to Suspended Sediment Yield Storm Events From a Small, Steep, Tropical Watershed. Journal of Hydrology, 538, 726-742. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.03.053.

Mujiyanto, H., Satria, Y., & Sugianti. (2010). Relationships Long and Heavy Tail Yellow (Caesiao cuning) Catches of Fish Traps in the Waters of the Gulf of Saleh, West Nusa Tenggara. Proceeding of National Seminar of Biology: Perspective in Biology Resources Management. Biology Faculty, Gajah Mada University. Yogyakarta, 24-24 September 2010. 972-977 p. [Indonesian].

Mujiyanto & Satria, H. (2011). Biodiversity of Encrusting Biota on Artificial Substrate in Saleh Bay, Eest Nusa Tenggara. Proceeding of National Seminar Yearly VIII, Research Result of Marine and Fisheries. Fisheries Devision, Agriculture Faculty. Gajah Mada University, Yogyakarta. 16 July 2011. KL-02. [Indonesian]

Mujiyanto., & Wasilun. (2006). Kondisi Oseanografi di Perairan Teluk Saleh, Nusa Tenggara Barat. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Ikan IV. Kerjasama LRPSI, LIPI, dan MII. 217-223hlm.

Murray, J.M., Watson, G.J., Giangrande, A., Licciano, M., & Bentley. M.G. (2013). Regeneration as a Novel Method to Culture Marine Ornamental Sabellids. Aquaculture, 410–411: 129–137. [Indonesian]

Nurdin, N., & Grydehøj, A. (2015). Informal Governance Through Patron–client Relationships and Destructive Fishing in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 3(2), 54-59.

Olivotto, I., Planas, M., Simoes, N., Holt, G.J., Avella, M.A., & Calado. R. (2011). Advances in Breeding and Rearing Marine Ornamentals. Journal of The World Aquaculture Society, 42(2), 135:166.

Olivotto, I., Chemello, G., Vargas, A., Randazzo, B. & Piccinetti. C.C. (2016). Marine Ornamental Species Culture: From the Past to “Finding Dory”. Elsivier.

Paramitha, A. (2014). Studi Klorofil-a Di Kawasan Perairan Belawan Sumatera Utara. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian. Universitas Sumatera Utara. Sumatera Utara.

Pauli, G. (2010). Blue Economy-10 Years, 100 Innovations, 100 Million Jobs. Paradigm-Pubs. New Mexico.

Priono, B., & Johan, O. (2014). Prospects for the Development of Marine Ornamental Fish Hatcheries and Efforts Utilization. Media Akuakultur, 9(2), 91-96. [Indonesian]

Purwanto, J. (2003). Trade and Economic Value of Ornamental Coral in Indonesia. Association of coral, Shellfish and Fish Ornamental Indonesia. [Indonesian]

Radjawane, I.M. (2006). Vertical Circulation Currents Waterway Saleh Bay Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara. Journal Segara, 2(1), 10-15. [Indonesian]

Raymakers, C. (2001). Review of trade in live corals from Indonesia. Traffic in Europe. Brussel. 66 pp.

Sunida, K.I. & Realino. B.S. (2014). Study of Location Determination for Seaweed Culture Development in Saleh bay, Sumbawa, NTB. Jurnal Kelautan Nasional, 9(2), 81-91.